In recent years, personality psychologists have focused increasing attention on the problem of meaning in human lives. Considering personality from the standpoint of the three layers of dispositional traits (the person conceived as a social actor), characteristic adaptations (the person as a motivated agent), and integrative life narratives (the person as author), this article identifies important features of personality that are associated with a person's sense that he or she is living a meaningful life. Dispositional traits associated with extraversion and conscientiousness appear to enhance meaning, whereas neuroticism is associated with lower levels of meaning in life. Characteristic adaptations, such as motives and goals, tend to specify what kinds of meanings people make and the specific areas in life where they make meaning. Strongly shaped by culture, integrative life stories show how the person authors a broad meaning for his or her entire life as seen over time.
The Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale for Japanese Young Adolescents assesses the domains which comprise young Japanese adolescents' sense of their self-worth. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four domains of self-esteem sources: artistic competence, academic competence, athletic competence, and peer relationships. All subscales had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In addition, all subscales showed low to moderate correlations with other personality scales, including the big five factors and a narcissistic personality inventory, but not with the Rosenberg self-esteem scale.
This study examined differences of irrational beliefs and mental health in undergraduates (N=151) categorized into four groups based on prosocial behavior and overadaptation, respectively: High–High, High–Low, Low–High, Low–Low. The results showed that the scores for both irrational beliefs and mental health for the High-High group were higher than for the other three groups. The importance of treating oneself with kindness while helping others was discussed.
This study investigated concerns about privacy related to the contents of private information and reasons for desiring privacy. In a semi-structured interview, undergraduate and graduate students were asked to indicate information they desired to keep private and the reason for desiring privacy. The results indicated that nearly all participants considered that personal information should be private. Participants who were more concerned about privacy thought that more kinds of personal information require privacy. They tended to regard negative past experiences and distress as being private, and considered their expectations of hesitation of others, embarrassment, and avoiding decreased self-evaluation as their reasons for desiring privacy.
The study investigated the relationship between women's romantic fantasies and their satisfaction with marital life. The romantic fantasies of 44 women were assessed using implicit and explicit measures (Implicit Association Test and self reports). The results showed that women implicitly (but not explicitly) tended to associate their partners with a prince or hero of a fantasy story, and their implicit romantic fantasies negatively predicted their satisfaction in marital life. The findings suggest that women's implicit attitudes, a psychological dependency to be taken care of by their partners, would produce conflicts with their reality and thus negatively affect their satisfaction in marital life.
This study investigated beliefs leading to depressive rumination. Undergraduate students (N=155) completed the Positive Beliefs about Depressive Rumination Questionnaire (PBDRQ), the Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale (PBRS), and a scale of depressive rumination. The PBRS scores were positively correlated with the scale of depressive rumination, but the “Improvement of Problem Solving Ability” and “Promotion of Emotional Regulation” scores of the PBDRQ were not. The results suggest that the beliefs that rumination facilitates understanding of themselves and situations, as measured on the PBRS, were most related to depressive rumination.