This study investigated when and how people used the term “personality” in weblogs to examine the pragmatic meaning of the concept of personality. Over a 24-hour period, 714 weblog entries that contained the word personality were extracted and categorized using a bottom-up analysis. We identified 17 categories (132 examples) where the term referred to another person's personality and 26 categories (encompassing 220 examples) of usage referring to the writer's own personality. Writers referred to another person's personality not only when explaining or making a prediction about that person's behavior, as previous research suggested, but also when evaluating another person along emotional lines as someone the writer likes or dislikes, often accompanied by a claim that the other person is good or bad. In contrast, writers were likely to describe their own personality as impossible to control and to ask others to accept them. These results suggest that there are some neglected topics in the field of personality psychology but the concept of personality is important for lay persons' daily conversation.
Empirical evidence has indicated that self-focus has an adaptive and maladaptive aspect in self-reflection and self-rumination. Previous research suggested that rumination is increased by positive beliefs about rumination, which are beliefs that rumination is a helpful coping strategy. The present study investigated the relationships among positive beliefs, two types of self-focus, and depression. In Study 1, we developed the Japanese version of the Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale (Papageorgiou & Wells, 2001a) and confirmed its reliability and validity. In Study 2, we investigated the relations among these constructs and depression using structural equation modeling. The analysis showed that positive beliefs were positively associated both with self-rumination and self-reflection. Self-rumination was associated with higher levels of depression, whereas self-reflection was associated with lower levels of depression. These results suggest that positive beliefs may not only trigger maladaptive self-focus and exacerbate depression, but also contribute to adaptive self-focus and lead to regulation of depression.
This study examined ethnic identity in a cross-cultural environment with reference to the relationship between group identity and ego identity (cf. Erikson, 1959). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (Phinney, 1992) for Japanese adolescents was administered to 335 students in Japan and 122 Japanese students abroad. Factor analysis yielded two factors (“Exploration”, “Affirmation/Belonging”). ANOVA showed that these factor scores were significantly higher for Japanese students abroad than for the students in Japan. A second analysis examined the effects of ethnic identity on ego identity and also cultural adjustment for the Japanese students abroad. The results of structural equation model analysis indicated that “Exploration” played an important role for ego identity and cultural adjustment with the intervening variable of ego identity. On the other hand, “Affirmation/Belonging” had a negative effect on ego identity and cultural adjustment by itself, even though it had a positive effect on ego identity with the intervening factor of “Exploration.”
This study investigated the relationship between Cloninger's four dimensions of temperament and multidimensional self-oriented perfectionism as a factor of gender. Multiple regression analysis indicated that, for both sexes, persistence on the temperamental dimension positively affected all aspects of self-oriented perfectionism. Novelty seeking and reward dependence negatively affected concern over mistakes only in men. Reward dependence negatively affected desire for perfection. Harm avoidance positively affected concern over mistakes and desire for perfection only in women. The results of this study suggest that there are gender commonalities and differences in temperamental traits that form the basis of multidimensional self-oriented perfectionism.
The literature was reviewed to investigate the origins of the traits of “agreeableness” and “cooperativeness”, which seem to have similar implications. The literature suggested that these traits were influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. These traits were related to temperaments of social-bonding formation and its maintenance (e.g., affiliation) and self-regulation. Affiliation, empathy, which seemed to be closely related to agreeableness, cooperativeness, and social-bonding formation and its maintenance all had neurobiological bases. These bases could be a part of the genetic origins of agreeableness and cooperativeness. Further investigations are necessary regarding the relationship among the components, formation processes as personality traits, and the environmental origins of agreeableness and cooperativeness. It is also necessary to reexamine the content of the scales measuring these traits.
Researchers have hypothesized that narcissists mask their implicit sense of self-dislike by constructing a grandiose self-representation. Several studies have tested this “mask model” using measures of implicit self-esteem, but no study has been done with a Japanese sample. In this study, the Implicit Association Test (Study 1; n=62) and a name letter task (Study 2; n=102) were administrated to measure the implicit self-esteem of Japanese undergraduates. The relationship between implicit self-esteem and narcissism was examined, and the results did not support the mask model. This result is similar to recent findings from a meta-analysis of the mask model of narcissism.
This study examined the relationship between dissociative tendencies and aggressive behaviors in adolescents. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and the Picture-Frustration (P–F) Study were administered to 60 vocational school students (28 men and 32 women; M=20.4 years). Simple correlation analysis indicated that the DES had negative correlations with obstacle-dominance and im-aggression, and had a positive correlation with extra-aggression from the P–F Study. Among the subscales of the DES, depersonalization was most related to aggressive behaviors. The results suggest that adolescents who have high dissociative tendencies are inclined to show aggression toward others directly.
We assessed the relationship between frequencies of engaging in pleasant activities and mood and depressive symptoms in undergraduate students by using a daily-diary method. Undergraduates were administered the Pleasant Events Schedule (Lewinsohn, Youngren, Munoz, & Zeiss, 1978) and the Japanese version of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (Sato & Yasuda, 2001) for seven days and the Japanese version of the Beck Depression Inventory (Hayashi, 1988). While the BDI scores did not directly correlate with the frequencies of pleasant activities, the intra-subject mean correlation coefficients indicated that the frequencies of pleasant activities were positively related to positive mood. This result offers partial support for the behavioral model of depression.
The present study was conducted to revise the Japanese version of the Depressive States Checklist (JDSC), and to evaluate the construct validity of the revised version. Undergraduate students participated in two questionnaire studies. In Study 1, items with sufficient face validity and factorial validity representing the self-devaluative view and affective components were selected for the revised version of the J-DSC (JDSC-R). In Study 2, each factor of the J-DSC-R showed adequate construct validity because the correlation coefficients among the factors of the J-DSC-R, depressive symptoms, and depressive rumination generally supported the hypothesis. The J-DSC-R can be used to contribute to the understanding of vulnerability to depression.
This study investigated the relationships between four attachment styles and emotional suppression. College students (N=416) completed a questionnaire which assessed attachment style and emotional suppression. The results of the analyses indicated that both dismissing and avoidant people expressed their negative emotions less than secure and preoccupied people. Although avoidant people suppressed emotional expression in social situations, dismissing people did not.
This study examined the contributions of several self-regulatory functions to externalizing problem behaviors. This study focused on three self-regulatory functions: Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Approach System (BIS/BAS), Effortful Control (EC), and Social Self-Regulation (SSR). The study tested the hypothesis that the direct effect of SSR on problem behaviors in social settings, such as antisocial behavior, is stronger than temperament facets (BIS/BAS, EC), whereas the direct effect of temperament facets on personal problem behaviors, such as eating disorder and impulse buying, are stronger than SSR. The results partially supported our hypothesis and suggested that the role of each self-regulatory function for externalizing problem behaviors is not universal but domain specific.