This study investigated the relationship between abandonment schema and borderline personality features from the standpoint of cognitive behavioral theory. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors developed the Abandonment Schema Questionnaire (ASQ) and examined its reliability and validity using a sample of 452 university students. Factor analysis of the ASQ yielded three factors: “Persistent abandonment and loneliness,” “Obsession and identification with significant others,” and “Disappointment with affection from others.” The results showed that the ASQ had adequate reliability and validity. In Study 3, the authors examined the relationship between abandonment schema and borderline personality features. A survey was conducted using a sample of 253 university students. Analysis of the results was consistent with a causal model indicating that abandonment schema affect BPD features of acting out via affective dysregulation. Future studies are needed to examine whether the ASQ is applicable to populations other than university students.
Resilience is a characteristic of everyone, but some aspects of resilience are easy to imbibe, whereas others are not. This study developed a Bidimensional Resilience Scale (BRS) using Cloninger's Temperament/Character model (TCI) as the criteria to consider separately the innate factors and acquired factors of resilience. A questionnaire was administered to 246 college students, and seven factors were extracted through factor analysis according to their relevance based on the TCI. Innate resilience factors included optimism, control, sociability, and vitality; acquired resilience factors included attempting to solve a problem, self-understanding, and understanding others. The resulting BRS questionnaire was administered to 759 people. The bidimensional structure and the validity of the BRS were examined through higher-order factor analysis and comparison of relevancy with existing measures. Finally, criterion-related validity was examined for the resulting terms of the relevancy of innate/acquired resilience factors and the temperament/character factors from the TCI.
In this study, we explored cultural scripts in narratives about future life by comparing three different cultural groups. Participants were 236 Japanese, 83 Chinese, and 179 American undergraduates. They were asked to imagine and describe freely one day 10 years ahead. Through content analysis, we found that narratives about one's future life are likely to reflect scripts unique to each culture. Japanese narratives tended to be vague and to focus more on inner states. Chinese narratives were likely to contain concrete goals and behaviors, as well as aspirations. American narratives emphasized a nice job and a happy life with family. A “going with the flow” pattern, “mountain climbing” pattern and “happy ending” pattern were found to be dominant in Japan, China and the U.S., respectively. It is suggested that these culture-specific patterns are similar to the features of cultural texts prevailing in each society. Future research is needed to explore how these scripts emerge and how they influence people's behavior in reality.
This study examined the relationships among important components of empathy in first-year junior high school students. A questionnaire was administered to measure components of their empathy evoked by two film stimuli: role-taking, parallel affective responding, other-oriented responding, and understanding others' (i.e., the protagonists') feelings. Role-taking, parallel affective responding, and understanding others' feelings significantly influenced other-oriented responding in both boys and girls. The results suggest that parallel affective responding and understanding others' feelings could evoke or enhance other-oriented responding. In girls, role-taking also influenced parallel affective responding. The influence of role-taking on understanding others' feelings was not significant. Participants also were asked about the reasons for their decisions about the protagonists' feelings; their answers suggested that they mainly used situations as cues about the protagonists' feelings.
This study investigated the effects of adult attachment styles on emotional experiences in marital relationships and evaluations of the relationships in 156 middle-age couples. The main results are as follows. The anxiety-attachment dimension was positively correlated with the self's and partner's negative emotion in the marital relationship, and negatively related to the self's and partner's evaluation of the relationship. The avoidance dimension was only related to the self's negative emotion and evaluation of the relationship. In addition, the relation between the anxiety dimension and the self's and partner's evaluation of the relationship were mediated by the self's and partner's negative emotions respectively. With regard to the avoidance dimension, only the relationship between the avoidance dimension and the self's evaluation of the relationship was mediated by the self's negative emotion. The results are discussed in terms of similarities and differences between mother-child and romantic dyads in early adulthood.
This study examined the agreement (correlations and correspondences) of self and other ratings on attachment style scales, and whether these correlations were influenced by the attachment style of the partner for the other-rating in dyads of new acquaintanceship. Participants were 60 pairs of university freshmen. The main results showed that two dimensions of attachment style had low but significant correlations between the self-rating and the other-rating. These correlations were not influenced by the attachment style of the partner. These findings might indicate that attachment style is a recognizable personality trait in the initial phase of close relationships.
Four distinct cognitive strategies can be classified based on the combination of the acknowledgement of past experiences and the expectations for future outcomes: strategic optimism (SO), defensive pessimism (DP), unjustified optimism (UO), and regular/realistic pessimism (RP). This study investigated the relationship between these four cognitive strategies and self-handicapping and stress coping among university students. The findings indicated that DP and RP were associated with higher mean scores for anxiety and pessimism. However, individuals with DP strategies did not adopt self-handicapping or avoidance coping styles, unlike individuals with RP or UO strategies. The results suggest that the four cognitive strategies have different characteristics and different influences on the adoption of self-handicapping and stress coping.
This study investigated effects of distraction in problem solving situations. University undergraduates (N=258) were instructed to remember their recent experience of being depressed about academic achievement, and then they completed a questionnaire which measured their concentration on distraction, positive mood, problem solving behavior, negative rumination, and knowledge of effective activity. The results of path analysis indicated that concentration on distraction enhanced problem solving by facilitating positive mood. Knowledge of effective activity enhanced problem solving, while negative rumination impaired problem solving because it negatively affected concentration on distraction.
The Experiences Questionnaire measures decentering, the state of observing thoughts and feelings as temporary events in the mind. This study developed the Japanese version of the Experiences Questionnaire (JEQ). The fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis (n=297) suggested an acceptable fit to a model consistent with the original. The correlations (n=411) between the J-EQ and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire- II, the Affective Control Scale, the Ruminative Response Scale, and the Cognitive Control Scale showed adequate construct validity. Internal consistency (n=411) and test–retest correlations of factors (n=54) indicated good reliability of the J–EQ. The J–EQ can be used to examine the influence of decentering on psychopathology.
This study examined narcissistic self-esteem regulation based on the relationship between narcissism and contingency of self-worth among Japanese adolescents. The results of correlation analysis indicated that the grandiose facet of narcissism was positively related to emphasis on appearance, competition, and family support, and negatively related to approval from others. The hypersensitive facet of narcissism was positively related to all dimensions of contingency of self-worth except appearance. The results for grandiose narcissism generally support the (extended) agency model. The necessity of investigating cultural differences in future studies was discussed.