Recent longitudinal and cross-sectional aging research has shown that personality traits are both consistent over time and yet change systematically in adulthood. In this paper, we review the evidence for personality trait continuity, mean-level change in personality traits, as well as individual differences in change across the life span. We then discuss several reasons for why personality would continue to change in adulthood and the implications of those changes for human capital and social policy.
The relation between teachers' help-seeking preferences and burnout was examined in 151 Japanese elementary school teachers, who filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a questionnaire about help-seeking preferences. The results suggested that young teachers need easy, acceptable support from other teachers. To reduce burnout symptoms, the elementary school administration should encourage and facilitate teachers to accept help from others without reluctance.
This study developed and validated a scale that assessed the memory representation of everyday life types of trauma (ELTT). University students (N=275) participated in the survey study. Factor analysis of the data yielded the following three factors: Situationally Accessible Memories, Degree of Verbalization, and Nega-tivity of Verbally Accessible Memories. The internal consistencies of each factor were high. The ELTT scale showed most of the predicted correlation patterns with the Impact of Event Scale and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, which supported its validity.
This study examined the validity of the Bidimensional Resilience Scale (BRS) using the twin method. In Study 1, the BRS was administered to 662 junior high and high school students, and the bidimensional structure (innate/acquired resilience factors) was extracted. In Study 2, the BRS was administered to 41 monozygotic (MZ) and 15 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the innate resilience factor was significant for MZ but not DZ twins, thus making the BRS scored attributable to independent genetic factors. Finally, the validity of the BRS subscales were examined.
Individuals with high trait anxiety show a tendency toward spontaneous generation of negative events. This study evaluated the relationship between guessing bias and trait anxiety in a word-fragment completion task without a study phase. College students (N=96) were asked to complete the word fragments in the absence of the study phase. Their guessing bias was calculated by subtracting the proportion of completion of neutral words from the proportion of completion of negative words. The results showed that the guessing bias was affected by trait anxiety, but not by dysphoria. Students who were higher in trait anxiety completed more negative words than neutral words.
The present study examined the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test-Anxiety (IAT-Anxiety). The participants were 44 university students who completed the IAT-Anxiety. Their 129 friends rated the participats' usual behavior. The relations between the participants' explicit/implicit anxiety (self rating) and state/trait anxiety (others' rating) were examined. The results supported the predictive validity of the IAT-Anxiety.