Identity problems of adolescents, which according to Erikson's theory manifest as neurosis-like conditions, were investigated in contemporary Japan. The Multidimensional Ego Identity Scale (Tani, 2001, 2008) that measures the sense of ego identity strictly on the basis of Erikson's theory, and the Japanese version of the General Health Questionnaire 28 items (Nakagawa & Daibo, 1985), an index of neurosis that is often used in clinical practice, were administered to university students (N=302). Results of a one-factor ANOVA indicated that the identity crisis, which is a characteristic of adolescence, does indeed occur in contemporary Japan. Moreover, it was indicated that developmental support focusing on identity formation was necessary for adolescents with identity diffusion. Furthermore, results of multiple regression analysis suggested that social position and connections, as well as self-consistency and continuity of adolescence should be considered when providing support.
Acculturation adaptation was investigated from the perspective of conservation of resources theory developed by Hobfoll. Internal resources (personality, resource management, and social support seeking), external resource (received social support) and acculturation adaptation (sociocultural and psychological adaptation), were examined in Chinese students living in Japan (N=251, aged 20–24 years). The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to assess their personality. The results of correlation analysis indicated that novelty seeking; reward-dependence, resource management and social support seeking were significantly related to received social support, suggesting that internal resources affected the social support received by an individual. Furthermore, the hypothesized resource model for acculturation adaptation was tested. The results supported this model, and suggested different influences on social support and acculturation adaptation based on different personality characteristics. It is concluded that social support plays a mediatory role between personality and adaptation.
Sadahiro and Mochizuki (2010) showed that acting in daily life could be classified into three pattern: conspicuous acting, inconspicuous acting and acting for self-interest and profit. Characteristics that affected acting patterns were investigated. We developed the Acting in Daily Life Scale (ADLS), which was designed to assess the frequency of acting from the perspective of conduct, motivation and the situation. Results indicated gender differences in acting with females having higher inconspicuous acting scores than males. Moreover, praise seeking needs had a strong positive correlation with conspicuous acting, whereas rejection avoidance needs had a strong positive correlation with inconspicuous acting. Results also suggested that the conspicuous acting score of males with low needs decreased significantly, whereas this score in females with low needs decreased only modestly. These results suggest that differences in social needs affect acting patterns, and moreover, that sex role expectations play a background role in differences in acting patterns.
We often modify the number of factors, or factor patterns, in order to improve models of factor analysis. However, these techniques have the disadvantage of skewing the meaning of factors. Moreover, although there could be correlations among unique factors used in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the criterion for adding correlations to unique factors is not clear. We developed a new approach to SEM by using covariance selection for graphical modeling. We have verified the effectiveness of this method by describing and analyzing three examples. It is concluded that we can modify models of factor analysis by using this technique, while maintaining the meaning of common factors without violating their normal distribution.
Direction of causation between the Gray's Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS), depression, and anxiety was investigated. Data of 424 twin pairs were subjected to direction of causation modeling, which is a method for inferring causal relationship from cross-sectional family data. Four causal models were examined: (1) BIS influences depression/anxiety, (2) depression/anxiety influences BIS, (3) they have mutual causal relationship, and (4) correlations between them are caused by a third variable, such as latent genetic and environmental factors. Results indicated that Model 1, which assumes BIS to have a causal influence, well fitted both depression and anxiety. When influences from BIS were considered, direction of causation modeling revealed that depression and anxiety have positive causal influences on each other. These results support the view that BIS is a diathesis for psychopathology. Results also suggest that interventions aimed at either depression or anxiety may improve the other mood state.
The factor structure of the Social Maturity Scale (S-M) and its factorial invariance were investigated in groups with intellectual disabilities. Participants were 1,002 children (292 girls and 710 boys) with or without mental retardation (MR), as described in records of child guidance centers. Participants were categorized into four groups on the basis of their developmental quotient, as assessed by the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development: (1) No MR, (2) Mild MR, (3) Moderate MR, and (4) Severe MR. Results indicated that the one factor model had a low goodness of fit for children with MR, whereas the alternative, two factor model, fitted these children best. These findings suggested that the S-M scale needs a different model to appropriately measure the social competence of children with MR.
This study investigated whether representations of hurtful experiences mediates between such experience and psychological maladjustment. Mental representations were operationally defined on the basis of the dual representation theory of PTSD (Brewin et al., 1996), as consisting of situationally and verbally accessible memories. University students (N=241) responded to a questionnaire. Then, path analysis of three models was conducted: mediation, direct, and mixed (mediated and direct) models. Results indicated that the data best fitted the mediation model.
Relationship between positive self-complexity (P-SC), satisfaction, happiness, and depression was investigated in university students (N=485). Participants completed a questionnaire on satisfaction, happiness, depression, and P-SC. Covariance structure analysis revealed that P-SC was positively associated with satisfaction and happiness, and satisfaction and happiness were negatively associated with depression. These findings suggest that satisfaction and happiness mediated between P-SC and depression. It is concluded that interventions to increase P-SC might increase satisfaction and happiness, and improve depression among university students.