The present study investigates the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Brief Core Schema Scale (JBCSS), which assesses schemata concerning the self and others. We also examined the relationship between subjective depression and the schemata. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the JBCSS is composed of four factors: Positive-Self (PS), Negative-Self (NS), Positive-Other (PO), Negative-Other (NO). Cluster analysis identified four subgroups of these schemata. Analysis of variance found that the group with negative schema about both the self and others had the highest scores on measures of depressive symptoms. These results indicate that the JBCSS can provide more detailed information about symptoms in combination with schemata of self and others.
The present research developed a Japanese version of the Appearance Schemas Inventory-Revised (ASI-R; Cash, Melnyk, & Hrabosky, 2004) and investigated the relationships among subordinate factors of appearance schemas and body checking cognitions. The results showed that the Japanese version of the ASI-R (JASI-R) consists of two factors: Self-Evaluative Salience (SES) and Motivational Salience (MS). The reliability and concurrent validity of the JASI-R were demonstrated. An analysis of gender differences revealed that women reported more self-evaluative and motivational investment in their appearance than men. The SES and MS factors had moderate to weak positive relationships with the subscales of body checking cognitions. The findings suggest that appearance schemas and body checking cognitions are relatively distinct concepts.
This study investigated the effects of depression and emotional valence on time estimation. Depressed (n=10) and non-depressed (n=13) university students looked at 44 pictures with standardized emotional valences. Participants were required to estimate the duration that pictures with pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral emotions (9 each) were displayed; the pictures were actually shown for 6 seconds each. The results indicated that the time estimations were significantly longer among the depressed students than the non-depressed students for pictures that were unpleasant. This suggests that depressive information processing in people with a depressive tendency tends to be activated by unpleasant stimuli. Moreover, their time estimations could be prolonged by reminding them of long-term negative memories.
This study investigated relationships among resilience and posttraumatic growth and emotional intelligence based on a distinction between the self and others domains. Undergraduates (104 males and 141 females) completed a questionnaire assessing emotional intelligence, posttraumatic growth from a most stressful event, and resilience following the event. Multiple population analysis of structural equation modeling was employed because there are gender differences in emotional intelligence. The results for male participants suggested that the resilience of others domain had a positive effect on the emotional intelligence of others domain, through the growth of skills to accept others. In contrast, for females, the resilience of self domain had a positive effect on both the emotional intelligence of the self and others domains, through the growth of self confidence. The reasons for gender differences in emotional intelligence and the relation between environment factors and emotional intelligence are discussed.
The Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCC; Campbell et al., 1996) assesses the extent to which self-beliefs are clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and stable. This study developed a Japanese version of the SCC Scale and examined its reliability and validity. In Study 1, a factor analysis revealed that the Japanese version of the SCC Scale had a one-factor structure, as did the original version. Moreover, this scale exhibited the expected correlations with self-esteem, depression, anxiety, self-consciousness and the Big Five personality factors. Study 2 showed that the SCC Scale had sufficient test-retest reliability. Study 3 examined concurrent validity in terms of the correlations between the Multidimensional Ego Identity Scale and the Stability of Self Scale. The results of hierarchical regression analyses, after controlling the other three variables, showed incremental validity for self-esteem and depression.
A useful method for measuring the instability of self-esteem was investigated. State self-esteem was rated once a day for seven days using e-mail (Study 1: N=124) or web applications (Study 2: N=122) by mobile phone. In addition, the participants were administered inventories to measure their experience of events and multiple moods. The results indicate that state self-esteem increased in relationship to positive events and mood, and decreased in relationship to negative events and mood. In Study 2, among the participants with stable self-esteem, those with low levels of self-esteem had higher depression than those with high self-esteem. However, those relationships were not found for participants with unstable self-esteem. Thus, the method used in this study is useful for measuring the instability of self-esteem.
Color–form preferences are an aspect of personality assessment based on perceptual judgments. Color utilization and form utilization have been regarded as one-dimensional and opposite concepts. In the present study, two-dimensional obliqueness was assumed between color and form utilization and the influences of personality traits for both utilizations were investigated. The NEO-PI-R was used to measure personality traits and the Three Similarity Evaluation Test (3-SET) were used to measure color and form utilization. Data from university students and vocational school students (N=265) were analyzed with Multilevel-SEM (Structural Equation Modeling). Among the five factors of the NEO-PI-R, only Openness had a positive effect on color utilization. Among the 30 sub-dimensions of the NEO-PI-R, Impulsiveness and Achievement Striving had a negative effect on form utilization. The possible use of these findings for psychological assessment is discussed.
Reassurance seeking is a trait consisting of cognitional and behavioral aspects of seeking security from significant others which is associated with increased depression. This study investigated the relationship between reassurance seeking, temperament, and depression. Respondents (N=209) filled out a questionnaire including scales of reassurance seeking, temperament (BIS/BAS), and depression. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using data from 192 respondents revealed that there were relationships between reassurance-seeking cognition, reassurance-seeking behavior, BIS, BAS—reward responsiveness, and depression. The results showed that reassurance seeking significantly enhanced depression, even when temperament was controlled.
This study developed a Japanese version of the Machiavellianism scale (Mach IV) and examined its reliability and validity. A questionnaire survey of university, junior college and vocational school students showed sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the scale. Its correlational validity was demonstrated in terms of the relationships with psychopathic tendencies, prosocial behavior, and Agreeableness (a dimension of the Five-Factor personality model). These results indicated that the Japanese version of the Machiavellian scale IV is useful to measure Machiavellian tendencies.
Some researchers have shown a relationship between a sense of identity and Negative Affectivity (NA), while others have found that logical thinking errors contribute to NA. Additionally, a sense of identity is theoretically related to logical thinking erros. However, few studies have investigated the comprehensive relationship among sense of identity, logical thinking errors, and NA. The present study tested the hypothesis that a sense of identity affects NA directly, and has an indirect effect on NA through logical thinking erros. The participants were 202 undergraduates who completed a self-rating questionnaire. Structural equation analysis provided support for the hypothesis.