This study examined the characteristics of personal constructs of individuals with high social anxiety using the repertory grid technique (the Rep), an assessment tool based on George Kelly's personal construct theory. Eighteen university students with high social anxiety completed the Rep for social anxiety, developed by the authors to elucidate the features of personal constructs from the perspective of the interaction between the person and the environment. The results revealed the features of the elements and constructs characteristic of socially anxious individuals. The responses to the Rep of all respondents were classified into five major categories. Furthermore, there were a variety of personal constructs in individuals with high social anxiety. The Rep seems to provide greater understanding about the features of individuals suffering from high social anxiety than ordinary questionnaires.
The present research investigated the characteristics of perfectionistic thoughts or self-statements of individuals who were dieting in order to develop a new scale, named the Perfectionistic Self-statements Inventory about Dieting (PSI-D). The reliability and validity of the PSI-D were also examined. In Study 1, a questionnaire consisting of 40 potential items generated from semi-structured interviews and an open-ended questionnaire survey was administered to 118 female university students who were on a strict diet. Factor analysis yielded four factors of the PSI-D: Persistence of High Standards, Self-Criticism about Failure, Respect for Striving, and Strict Self-Restraint. Sufficient internal consistency for the whole scale and each subscale was established. In Study 2, a test battery of the PSI-D and other scales was administered to two samples of female university students (n=148 and 140). The results demonstrated sufficient validity of the PSI-D. The authors discussed the usefulness of the PSI-D based on the results.
Adaptive coping with stressful events is likely to promote the development of emotional intelligence, although there is little confirmatory research. This questionnaire study investigated relationships among cognitive appraisals, coping strategies, and development of emotional intelligence during preparation for a university entrance examination in a sample of undergraduates (242 males and 242 females). The results of a multiple population analysis indicated that solitary approach coping and social coping positively affected the development of emotional intelligence regardless of the type of university entrance examination taken. Solitary avoidance coping indirectly led to development of emotional intelligence by alleviating negative emotions and facilitating coping with the problem. This indirect effect became more intense if students appraised the university entrance examination in a less avoidant manner.
This study investigated how makeup acts by using a narrative approach, especially focusing on the topos and dialogicality. Interviews were conducted with four women involved in beauty work (age 23–61), which modeled the linkage between the topos and the process of makeup. First, the differentiation of topos as addressee and the process of makeup were modeled from their narratives. Second, we modeled the topos that became the addressee, using the Life Rings Model (Yamada & Yamada, 2009). The results showed that the makeup process and the topos as addressee are constructed multiplexly in the compound relations between the actor and another person. The meanings of the makeup acts are organized, based on individual experience and transformed in one's developmental process. This study provides a new suggestion for the study of makeup, that an important role of makeup is to transform the state of oneself.
Academic contingency of self-worth (ACSW) refers to the degree to which one's sense of self-worth is based on academic achievement. Past research on this subject primarily focused on the detrimental effects of ACSW on mental health and achievement. The present study examined both positive and negative effects of ACSW on motivation and achievement during one academic semester by conducting three successive questionnaire surveys. The participants were 154 junior high school students. The results show that when high ACSW students received poorer grades than their expectations, their state self-esteem decreased significantly, which evoked negative emotions. Then, their negative emotions were positively related to their final exam grades. However, when high ACSW students received better grades than their expectations, their state self-esteem increased, which evoked positive emotions. Subsequently, their positive emotions were positively related to their final exam grades.
This research investigated the relationship between meta-cognitive beliefs about focused-distraction and depression. In Study 1, we developed a scale measuring the endorsement of meta-cognitive beliefs about focused-distraction. This measure, the Meta-cognitive Beliefs about Focused-distraction Questionnaire (MBFQ), has four subscales: Impairment of Problem Solving, Ironic Effect, Calm Judgment, and Memory Suppression. In Study 2, the MBFQ showed sufficient criterion-related validity, discriminant validity, and test-retest reliability. Structural equation modeling using a cross-lagged effects model revealed that the score for Ironic Effect significantly predicted the degree of depression. This result suggests that the modification of negative beliefs, especially Ironic Effect, would be effective in protecting against the exacerbation of depression. The process of exacerbation of depression is discussed.
The Japanese language version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Japanese Burnout Scale (Kubo, 1998) are often used in Japan for measuring burnout. Many researchers have reported that when these are used with teachers, the factor structure of the MBI changes. This study examined the factor structure of junior high school teachers' burnout using the Japanese Burnout Scale with confirmatory factor analysis. Junior high school teachers from three different districts (N=1,313) were surveyed about burnout and completed the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18; Suzuki et al., 1997). Based on a confirmatory factor analysis and in relation to the SRS-18, it was confirmed that it is most appropriate to measure the burnout condition of junior high school teachers on the basis of three factors: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and individual accomplishment.
This study investigated the influence of social comparison with an average student on the formation of academic self-concept in high-ability high school students. We used achievement goals as moderating variables for evaluating the effects of such social comparisons. Data was collected from 589 students at three high-ability high schools using a self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire results showed that social comparison with an average student influenced math and Japanese self-concepts after controlling for the students' academic achievements, the effect of social comparison with their class, and reflected glory effect. The results showed that when comparing themselves with an average student, high-ability students who considered their achievements to be higher had a higher academic self-concept. Furthermore, the results indicated that achievement goals have no moderating effects.
This study examined the mechanisms influencing alcohol consumption in young adults by focusing on the interrelations among sensation seeking, parents' drinking, and peers' drinking. College students (109 males and 89 females) completed a self-administered questionnaire. The results of structural equation modeling revealed that 1) the effect of sensation seeking on drinking was mediated by peer influence, 2) the three variables were significantly related to drinking, and 3) sensation seeking had the strongest influence on drinking.
The Interpersonal Stressor Scale (ISS) was developed based on Takahashi and Matsui (2009), and its reliability and validity were examined. In Study 1, analysis of data from 204 undergraduates indicated that the scale consisted of 4 subscales: incur-rejection, incur-aggression, aggression, and rejection. The scale had sufficient internal consistency (α=.75∼.85). In Study 2, 200 undergraduates completed the newly developed ISS, and the data analyses showed sufficient construct validity of the scale.
This research examined whether participants formed an implicit or explicit preference for studied compound kanji words. First the participants (N=30) studied five compound words. Second, they rated the studied and five not-studied compound words explicitly. Finally, the participants performed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) that combined a recognition judgment (old vs. new) and a valence judgment (pleasant vs. unpleasant). The results showed an implicit preference for studied words, but not an explicit preference.
The Multi-dimensional Privacy Scale for Internet Users (MPS-I) was developed for the multidimensional assessment of concerns about information privacy, and its validity and reliability were examined. In Study 1, a web-based survey was conducted with 1,036 Internet users. Factor analysis of responses to the scale revealed four dimensions of concerns about one's information privacy: Autobiographical Information (11 items), Demographical Information (8 items), Identifiable Information (4 items), and Password and Credit Information (3 items). In Study 2, 119 undergraduates completed a paper-based questionnaire, and the relationships of the MPS-I to privacy preferences and self-disclosure tendencies were examined. The results suggested that the MPS-I had sufficient validity and was highly reliable.
This study investigated the problem-solving process using distraction in interpersonal stress situations among undergraduates. Undergraduate participants (N=223) were instructed to recall a recent personal experience of being depressed by an interpersonal stressor, and then completed a questionnaire which measured concentration on distraction, positive mood, problem-solving behavior, distraction frequency, rumination, and knowledge of effective activity. The results of path analysis suggested that concentration enhanced problem-solving through increasing positive mood as previous study. Knowledge of effective activity was an important key to enhance the effect of distraction on problem-solving through enhancing the frequency of distraction and reducing rumination.