While the person-situation debate was largely based on a misunderstanding of the magnitude of the correlations that characterize relations between personality traits and behavior, it drew much-needed attention to the importance of situations. However, few attempts have been made to understand the important elements of situations in relation to behavior. Current work developing the Riverside Situational Q-sort (RSQ) aims to provide a useful way to conceptualize and measure the behaviorally important attributes of situations. A current project is applying this method cross-culturally. New data from the US and Japan show that behavioral correlates of two elements of the situation—the presence of a member of the opposite sex and the experience of being criticized by others—have largely similar behavioral correlates between genders and across cultures. These analyses illustrate how the RSQ illuminates the connections between situations and behavior. Future research will extend such analyses to more situational attributes and other cultures around the world.
Self-focus, the tendency to focus attention on the self, has functional and dysfunctional aspects influencing psychological adjustment, e.g., self-reflection and self-rumination. Although most previous studies have examined these functional and dysfunctional forms of self-focus in relation with affective and cognitive processes within a person, few studies have investigated the roles of self-focus in a social and interpersonal context. The present study examined the relationships among these two forms of self-focus and self-acceptance and self-disclosure. A total of 122 undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires measuring self-rumination, self-reflection, self-acceptance, and self-disclosure. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-rumination is directly and indirectly associated with inadequate self-disclosure, mediated by a lower level of self-acceptance; whereas self-reflection is associated with adequate self-disclosure mediated by a higher level of self-acceptance. These results suggest that self-rumination and self-reflection play different roles in social and interpersonal functioning and psychological adjustment.
The social skills of Chinese youth are reported to be declining. Therefore, a social skills training (SST) program involving the unique cultural characteristics of Chinese people was developed, and its effectiveness was investigated. In Study 1, a SST program was developed incorporating cross-cultural social skills and the unique identity of Chinese culture. In Study 2, 98 Chinese undergraduates were divided into a control and an SST group, who participated in the new SST program. All participants were administered a series of culture-based social skills scales. The results indicated a significant effect of the SST program in the SST group compared with the control group. Moreover, the SST group showed significant changes on Chinese-culture and cross-culture scales, but no changes on the Japanese-culture scale. These effects remained at the 3-month follow-up assessment. Thus the components of cultural traits in the newly developed SST program were verified.
This study developed a Japanese version of the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI-J) and examined its reliability and validity. The participants were 902 Japanese undergraduates (376 males, 526 females). They completed the TIPI-J and one of the other Big-Five scales: Big Five Scale (BFS; Wada, 1996); Five Factor Personality Questionnaire (FFPQ-50; Fujishima et al., 2005); BFS short version (Uchida, 2002); Big Five (Murakami & Murakami, 1999); or the NEO-FFI (Shimonaka et al., 1999). The TIPI-J was administered again two weeks later to 149 participants to determine test-retest reliability. Also, 31 pairs of participants rated their self-image and the other-image using the TIPI-J to explore the relationship between self-rated and friend-rated TIPI-J scores. The results generally supported the reliability and validity of the TIPI-J.
Three types of expressions of humor and five motives for expressing humor were used to investigate the relationships between humor and psychosocial health. The results indicated that aggressive humor was positively and negatively related to psychosocial health, depending on the motive. Furthermore, self-disparaging humor (considered to be negatively related to psychosocial health) and playful humor (considered to be positively related) might be unrelated to psychosocial health depending on the motives. These results suggest that it is important to analyze the motives for the expression of humor when considering the relationship between types of humor and psychosocial health.
This study investigated characteristics of reinforcement sensitivity and schemas in undergraduate students, and whether there were any related differences in the students' self-rating depression scale (SDS) scores. In the first study, undergraduate students (N=693; 270 males, 423 females) completed a questionnaire. Analysis of the results showed that the students could be grouped into five clusters of cognitive-behavioral styles, described as follows: Distorted Cognitive/Passive Avoidance Tendency; Low Reward-Responsiveness; Low Distorted Cognitive; Behavioral Activation; and Distorted Cognitive/Active Avoidance Tendency. Participants of the Distorted Cognitive/Passive Avoidance Tendency type had higher SDS scores than the other clusters. In the second study, a different group of undergraduate students (N=175; 57 males, 118 females) were grouped into the same five clusters. We looked at differences of SDS scores among the five clusters in a six-month longitudinal study. The results showed that participants of the Cognitive Distortion/Passive-Avoidance Tendency type had high SDS scores during the follow-up period. Appropriate intervention methods for each group are discussed.
Lewin (1951) defined time perspective as “the totality of the individual's views of his psychological future and his psychological past existing in a given time.” This study developed a Japanese version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), which measures individual differences in time perspectives. A Japanese translation of the ZTPI was administered to 748 college students. Five factors (past-positive, past-negative, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future) were extracted through explanatory maximum likelihood solution factor analysis (using promax-rotation). The accumulation contribution was 37.0%. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the integrity of fit indexes were CFI=.681, GFI=.829, AGFI=.810, RMSEA=.057, and AIC=3125.726. The alpha coefficients ranged from .65 to .76, and the test-retest reliability ranged from .63 to .78 (p<.05). The “present hedonistic” factor in the Japanese version had strong implications for “excitement–seeking,” in comparison with the original inventory. Moreover, a connection of the present and the future was also suggested. This Japanese version of the ZPTI, after further examination of its validity, should facilitate international comparative research.
This study examined the relationships between daily acceptance and rejection experiences and self-esteem and aggression. The participants were 251 undergraduate students. The results showed that rejection experiences predicted lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of anger and hostility, and acceptance experiences predicted lower levels of physical aggression and hostility. These results were consistent with the findings of an experimental study of acceptance and rejection. The application of experimental findings of acceptance and rejection to daily events is discussed.
This study examined the relative effects of agency beliefs for strategy, perceived cost, and perceived utility on the use of cognitive strategies at the strategy-specific level. A self-report questionnaire survey was administered to 180 undergraduates. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that agency beliefs for strategy had the strongest positive effect on the use of all cognitive strategies (writing-repetition strategy, elaboration strategy, writing-organizational strategy, and organizational strategy); perceived cost did not have an effect; and perceived utility had a weak positive effect except for organizational strategy.
A previous study indicated that depressed people show a smaller inhibition of return effect (IOR) for negative stimuli in a spatial cueing task. According to Mogg and Bradley (2005), a depressive bias in attention is observed only when self-relevant negative stimuli are presented. To test this proposition, the present research compared the IOR of depressed people for negative trait adjectives and for other negative words. We found that depressed participants had a smaller IOR for trait adjectives than for other negative words. This result suggests that depressed individuals have difficulty in disengaging their attention from negative self-relevant stimuli.
This study examined the stability of the Bidimensional Resilience Scale (BRS) and its relationship with life events. The BRS was administered twice to 57 university students at an interval of about three months. Each subscale showed a strong positive correlation between Time 1 and Time 2, but the subscales were poorly correlated with life events. Thus the temporal stability of the subscales was confirmed. The analysis of the subscale scores showed that people with high “sociability” (an innate factor) tended to have experienced more positive life events, and people who had experienced more life events tended to have higher scores on “self-understanding” (an acquired factor).