While the person-situation debate was largely based on a misunderstanding of the magnitude of the correlations that characterize relations between personality traits and behavior, it drew much-needed attention to the importance of situations. However, few attempts have been made to understand the important elements of situations in relation to behavior. Current work developing the Riverside Situational Q-sort (RSQ) aims to provide a useful way to conceptualize and measure the behaviorally important attributes of situations. A current project is applying this method cross-culturally. New data from the US and Japan show that behavioral correlates of two elements of the situation—the presence of a member of the opposite sex and the experience of being criticized by others—have largely similar behavioral correlates between genders and across cultures. These analyses illustrate how the RSQ illuminates the connections between situations and behavior. Future research will extend such analyses to more situational attributes and other cultures around the world.
This study examined the relationships between daily acceptance and rejection experiences and self-esteem and aggression. The participants were 251 undergraduate students. The results showed that rejection experiences predicted lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of anger and hostility, and acceptance experiences predicted lower levels of physical aggression and hostility. These results were consistent with the findings of an experimental study of acceptance and rejection. The application of experimental findings of acceptance and rejection to daily events is discussed.
This study examined the relative effects of agency beliefs for strategy, perceived cost, and perceived utility on the use of cognitive strategies at the strategy-specific level. A self-report questionnaire survey was administered to 180 undergraduates. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that agency beliefs for strategy had the strongest positive effect on the use of all cognitive strategies (writing-repetition strategy, elaboration strategy, writing-organizational strategy, and organizational strategy); perceived cost did not have an effect; and perceived utility had a weak positive effect except for organizational strategy.
A previous study indicated that depressed people show a smaller inhibition of return effect (IOR) for negative stimuli in a spatial cueing task. According to Mogg and Bradley (2005), a depressive bias in attention is observed only when self-relevant negative stimuli are presented. To test this proposition, the present research compared the IOR of depressed people for negative trait adjectives and for other negative words. We found that depressed participants had a smaller IOR for trait adjectives than for other negative words. This result suggests that depressed individuals have difficulty in disengaging their attention from negative self-relevant stimuli.
This study examined the stability of the Bidimensional Resilience Scale (BRS) and its relationship with life events. The BRS was administered twice to 57 university students at an interval of about three months. Each subscale showed a strong positive correlation between Time 1 and Time 2, but the subscales were poorly correlated with life events. Thus the temporal stability of the subscales was confirmed. The analysis of the subscale scores showed that people with high “sociability” (an innate factor) tended to have experienced more positive life events, and people who had experienced more life events tended to have higher scores on “self-understanding” (an acquired factor).