A questionnaire examining the differentiation of self related to aversiveness for negative life events was administered to 1242 high school students in a metropolitan area. The results of covariance structure analysis showed that differentiation of self negatively affected aversiveness for negative life events in both the achievement domain and the interpersonal domain. Less differentiated students were more affected by negative life events, and had a higher possibility of being maladjusted.
This study examined how goal orientations influenced academic help-seeking and peer modeling through intrinsic interest in elementary and junior high school students. Participants were 438 elementary school students and 654 junior high school students. Structural equation modeling revealed that mastery goal orientation influenced dependent help-seeking through intrinsic interest in elementary and junior high school students. In elementary school students, the effect of mastery goal orientation on peer modeling was partly mediated by intrinsic interest. The effect of performance-avoidance goals on peer modeling was stronger in junior high school students than in elementary school students. The roles of goal orientations in peer learning in elementary and junior school students are discussed.
This study investigated whether social motivation, goal orientation, and interpersonal behavior in social situations differ related to the cognitive strategies of strategic optimism (SO), defensive pessimism (DP), unjustified optimism (UO), and regular/realistic pessimism (RP). It examined a causal process model that social motives and goal orientations influence interpersonal behavior. The results showed that individuals characterized by SO and UO had hope for affiliation and an interpersonal experience/growth goal, whereas DP and RP individuals were motivated by fear of rejection. The causal process model showed that the hope for affiliation promotes positive interpersonal behavior through the experience/growth goal. However, UO and RP individuals were taking action that looked seemingly negative to obtain a good evaluation of their character.
This study developed a motivational regulation strategy scale, and examined its construct validity and the effects of motivational regulation strategies on persistence in learning and behavioral engagement. First, a self-report questionnaire with open-ended questions was administered to 156 undergraduates. The findings were used to develop a motivational regulation strategy scale. Next, this self-report scale was administered to 272 undergraduates. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a seven-factor structure of motivational regulation strategies. The relationships between motivational regulation strategies and learning beliefs, measured by the Control, Agency, and Means-Ends Interview (CAMI), supported the construct validity of the new scale. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that an autonomy regulation strategy positively influenced persistence in learning and behavioral engagement, and that cooperation and performance strategies negatively influenced persistence in learning and behavioral engagement. The implications of motivational regulation strategies for undergraduates are discussed.
This study investigated the effects of friendship motivation on strategies for handling interpersonal conflicts and friendship satisfaction in Japanese young adults. Participants (N=218) completed a self-report questionnaire about friendship motivation, interpersonal conflict strategies, and friendship satisfaction. The results of path analysis revealed that intrinsic motivation was associated with a more integrating style, external motivation with a more forceful style, and introjected motivation with a more avoiding and yielding style. In addition, the results of multiple regression analysis indicated that introjected motivation was associated with lower friendship satisfaction. These findings suggest that friendships among contemporary adolescents are based on both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Moreover, the results suggest that friendships based on extrinsic motivation have lower friendship satisfaction. The reasons for interacting with friends on the basis of intrinsic motivation are discussed.
Slimness and dieting are considered as aspects of adornment. We hypothesized that slimness, similar to adornment, has two psychological functions: for oneself and for others. In this study, positive and negative aspects of body outcome expectancies were examined to clarify cognitions about the functions of slimness. In Study 1, descriptions were obtained from participants and classified into 11 categories. Slimness had the same psychological functions for self and others as had been found for adornment. In Study 2, the relationship between body outcome expectancies and the drive for thinness was examined. To measure the degree of body outcome expectancies, items were developed based on the descriptions obtained in Study 1. Pearson’s r between these scores and the drive for thinness score were calculated, which showed positive relationships.
This study examined the relation between internal working models of attachment and assumed-competence types. Both constructs consist of two dimensions: self and others. Participants were 613 undergraduate students who completed the Assumed-Competence Scale and the Experiences in Close Relationships, Assumed-Competence Scale, and Self-Esteem Scale. Correlation analyses revealed that the dimensions for the self of the attachment models and the assumed-competence types (i.e., “anxiety” and self-esteem type) were negatively correlated, but the dimension for others (i.e., “avoidance” and the tendency to undervalue others) showed a weak correlation. Regarding internal attachment models, the securely attached participants were more often classified as higher self-esteem types, and less often as atrophy and assumption types, of assumed-competence. The preoccupied participants were more often classified as atrophy types, and less often as self-esteem types, of assumed-competence. The fearful-avoidant participants were more often classified as assumption types, and less often as self-esteem types, of assumed-competence. These results suggest that the internal attachment models and the assumed-competence types, especially for the dimensions of self, correspond with each other. The convergence and discrimination of the internal working models of attachment and assumed-competence types are discussed.
The present study investigated the relationship between forgiveness and the cultural values of the Japanese. Multiple regression analysis indicated that dispositional unforgiveness of self/situation was negatively related to independent self-construal and positively related to interdependent self-construal. The results show that the value of forgiveness of self/situation is low in the Japanese worldview. In the relationships between the religious faith scale and the sub-dimensions of dispositional forgiveness, forgiveness of others was positively related only to the item “religion has harmful effects”. Discussion of the results reveals how cultural and religious beliefs about forgiveness are different in Japan compared to Western countries.
This study examined causal relationships between adjustment and cognitions of importance for the domains of school life by using a cross-lagged effect model. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 338 junior high school students twice (Time 1, from June to July in 2006; Time 2, from February to March in 2007). The results showed that the cognitions of importance for each domain of school life at Time 2 were influenced not only by the cognitions of importance but also by the adjustment to the domains at Time 1. On the other hand, the adjustment to each domain at Time 2 was affected only by the adjustment to the domain at Time 1.
Academic contingency of self-worth (ACSW) refers to the degree to which one’s sense of self-worth is based on academic achievement. Past research on this subject focused on the joint influence of ACSW and achievement (such as success and failure) on affective and motivational outcomes. However, the cumulative effects of past achievement have not been taken into consideration. This study examined how the interaction between ACSW and perceived cumulative achievement influenced motivation. The participants were 226 junior high school students. The results showed that when the self-report of cumulative achievement was high, ACSW enhanced the motivation.
This study investigated individual differences in the influence of anxiety on memory after acute stress. Students were assigned to a stress condition (n=26) or a control condition (n=26). After completing an anxiety scale, the participants were exposed to either a stressor or a non-stressful task. Then they learned neutral, positive, and negative word lists of 10 words each, followed by a 15 min filler task and then a recall test. The results showed that recall performance for positive words was enhanced in the stress condition, but only for the high anxiety group. There was a different pattern of memory bias for the high anxiety group between the stress and control conditions.
Using a behavioral genetic approach, we examined the association between Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and IQ in terms of underlying genetic and environmental etiological overlap. Using the TCI personality dimensions (4 temperaments and 3 character traits) and IQ data for 199 pairs of adolescent and young adult twins, we found a genetic negative correlation between one of the character traits (self-transcendence) and IQ. In contrast, we did not find significant environmental correlations between any of the personality dimensions and IQ. These results suggest that contributions from the same genetic factor operate on both self-transcendence and IQ.