This study developed a scale that measures approach-avoidance commitment in romantic relationships, and examined its reliability and validity. Approach commitment was defined as approaching goals for rewards; this is associated with maintaining a relationship. Avoidance commitment was defined as avoiding goals because of punishments; this is associated with leaving a relationship. The participants were undergraduates, n=133 in Sample 1 and n=136 in Sample 2, who completed the Approach-Avoidance Commitment Scale for Romantic Relationships. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that the Approach-Avoidance Commitment Scale consisted of two factors, which had good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis supported this two-factor structure. This study also examined the associations between the Approach-Avoidance Commitment Scale and the Investment Model Scale, the BIS/BAS Scale, ECR-GO, and IOS. The Approach-Avoidance Commitment Scale was theoretically postulated to have an association with each of these scales. The results suggested that the Approach-Avoidance Commitment Scale has sufficient validity.
The purpose of this study was to classify the main psychological theories about guilt from a cognitive point of view, and to show other types than traditional concepts of guilt. Two criteria were used for classification: whether there was direct interaction with others, and whether one considers only his own act or both his act and the acts of others. The first type of guilt arises from a focus on what one has done, and involves self-reproach for doing wrong. The second involves guilt derived from relatedness, which centers on the other whom one has injured. A third type of guilt results from disequilibrium in an interaction between one person and another. The fourth type is the guilt between no particular relationship, including survivor's guilt. The third type is described in psychological theory which was developed originally in Japan like as the Ajase complex and is presented in some Japanese literary works.
The response-focused coping process with interpersonal stress is defined as coping with interpersonal stress after emotions were aroused by a stressor. In Studies 1 and 2, the Response-Focused Interpersonal Stress Coping Scale was developed, and its reliability and validity were investigated. In Study 3, the response-focused coping process with interpersonal stress model was investigated. Results indicated that the response-focused coping process with interpersonal stress could generally be classified into two categories, one centered on sadness and the other centered on anger. These results suggest that coping with interpersonal stress requires not only emotional reappraisal, but also emotional suppression.
This study investigated gender differences in pathological narcissism in a survey of 354 college students using an immature narcissism scale. The results showed that women scored significantly higher on “dependence on others” than men, although men had significantly higher scores for “self-grandiosity.” In addition, men scored significantly higher on sense of basic trust and self-esteem, while women scored significantly higher on sense of interpersonal trust. For correlations between narcissism and a sense of basic trust, “dependence on others” had a significant negative correlation with sense of basic trust and self-esteem, while “self-grandiosity” had a significant positive correlation. The findings suggest that dependence is characteristic of pathological narcissism. Multiple regression analyses revealed that a sense of basic trust had a negative effect on “dependence on others” for both genders; however, for men, but not women, a sense of basic trust had a positive influence on “self-grandiosity.” In conclusion, the nature of pathological narcissism was suggested to be different for men and women.
This study examined whether the reflected self would influence the self-concept of four different functions of a significant other: support, enjoyment, model, and rival. A questionnaire study was conducted with 378 university students. They rated their self-concept and four different reflected selves of a significant other in terms of the three dimensions of social desirability, friendliness and activity. The results showed that the reflected self for the model function of a significant other did not influence self-concept. In addition, it was found that different dimensions for the reflected self of a significant other who has various functions influenced the self-concept by each function of a significant other. How the reflected self influences the self-concept was discussed from the perspective of not only what kind of significant other influences it, but also how this occurs.
This study focused on the moderating effects of self-monitoring, and examined the interaction between self-monitoring and neuroticism on job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. The participants were 133 employees of a Japanese traffic enterprise (123 men and 10 women), with a mean age of 38.02 years (SD=10.27). Previous studies have shown that workers with high neuroticism have lower job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior than workers with low neuroticism. However, our results showed that workers with high self-monitoring, even if they had high neuroticism, had the same degree of job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior as workers with low neuroticism.
This study examined adolescents' social self-regulation in four cultures and differences in the relationships between social self-regulation and antisocial behavior. A total of 1,270 adolescents from Japan, Korea, China, and the United States completed a questionnaire. The results of an ANOVA showed that adolescents in Japan showed lower self-assertion than those in Korea, China, and the United States. Adolescents in China showed more self-inhibition than those in Japan, Korea, and the United States. The results of an ANOVA showed the following. Only the main effect of self-inhibition on antisocial behavior was observed in Korea, China, and United States, whereas an interaction effect of self-assertion and self-inhibition on antisocial behavior was observed in Japan. Since the “assertive type,” showing high self-assertion and low self-inhibition, does not fit in Japanese culture, assertive-type people would be observed as having maladjusted behavior in Japan.
The present study examined whether the frequency of intrusive thoughts mediates the relationship between depression and meta-cognitive beliefs about focused distraction. Participants were required to suppress their thoughts in a condition where they were able to use focused distraction. An analysis of mediation indicated that the subjective frequency of intrusive thoughts completely mediated the relation between depression and the meta-cognitive belief about the ironic effect of mental control. This result suggests that the degree of confidence in the belief about the ironic effect of mental control is influenced by the degree to which the frequency of intrusive thoughts has been affected by depression.
This study investigated the changes of mood (assessed five times) across a catastrophizing task. The results showed that anxious mood at Time 1 was significantly different from at Time 4 and Time 5. Also sad mood did not show a significant difference across the catastrophizing task. It was suggested that an anxious mood tends to increase across a catastrophizing task.
This study categorized interpersonal conflicts in friendships between mothers rearing little children, so called “mum-friends” in Japan. It examined the relation between the typical types of conflicts and the personality traits of the respondents and their friends assessed by the Big Five Scale (Wada, 1996). An internet survey was conducted with 300 women rearing little children. From the result of Hayashi's Quantification Method Type Ⅲ and cluster analysis based on 205 respondents who reported conflicts with their mum-friends, we extracted four clusters of types of interpersonal conflicts. Conflicts concerning criticism of children's discipline and lack of common-sense were frequent in the friendship between mothers; these respondents rated their friends’ Conscientiousness and Agreeableness as relatively low. For conflicts related to socioeconomic disparity, the respondents’ self-reported Conscientiousness was evaluated lower than for the other types of conflict, and the friends’ Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were evaluated relatively high.
This study examined the relation between attachment styles and friendship motivation. Participants were 334 undergraduate students who completed the Relationship Questionnaire, the Friendship Motivation Scale, and an item about the number of their friends. The results of an ANOVA indicated the following. (1) Secure attachment styles were associated with high autonomy and low controlled motivation for friendship, and a large number of friends. (2) Preoccupied attachment styles were associated with high autonomy and controlled motivation for friendship, and a large number of friends. (3) Dismissive attachment styles were associated with average autonomy and controlled motivation for friendship, and a small number of friends. (4) Fearful attachment styles were associated with low autonomy and high controlled motivation for friendship, and a small number of friends.