The purpose of this study was to classify the main psychological theories about guilt from a cognitive point of view, and to show other types than traditional concepts of guilt. Two criteria were used for classification: whether there was direct interaction with others, and whether one considers only his own act or both his act and the acts of others. The first type of guilt arises from a focus on what one has done, and involves self-reproach for doing wrong. The second involves guilt derived from relatedness, which centers on the other whom one has injured. A third type of guilt results from disequilibrium in an interaction between one person and another. The fourth type is the guilt between no particular relationship, including survivor's guilt. The third type is described in psychological theory which was developed originally in Japan like as the Ajase complex and is presented in some Japanese literary works.
This study examined adolescents' social self-regulation in four cultures and differences in the relationships between social self-regulation and antisocial behavior. A total of 1,270 adolescents from Japan, Korea, China, and the United States completed a questionnaire. The results of an ANOVA showed that adolescents in Japan showed lower self-assertion than those in Korea, China, and the United States. Adolescents in China showed more self-inhibition than those in Japan, Korea, and the United States. The results of an ANOVA showed the following. Only the main effect of self-inhibition on antisocial behavior was observed in Korea, China, and United States, whereas an interaction effect of self-assertion and self-inhibition on antisocial behavior was observed in Japan. Since the “assertive type,” showing high self-assertion and low self-inhibition, does not fit in Japanese culture, assertive-type people would be observed as having maladjusted behavior in Japan.
The present study examined whether the frequency of intrusive thoughts mediates the relationship between depression and meta-cognitive beliefs about focused distraction. Participants were required to suppress their thoughts in a condition where they were able to use focused distraction. An analysis of mediation indicated that the subjective frequency of intrusive thoughts completely mediated the relation between depression and the meta-cognitive belief about the ironic effect of mental control. This result suggests that the degree of confidence in the belief about the ironic effect of mental control is influenced by the degree to which the frequency of intrusive thoughts has been affected by depression.
This study investigated the changes of mood (assessed five times) across a catastrophizing task. The results showed that anxious mood at Time 1 was significantly different from at Time 4 and Time 5. Also sad mood did not show a significant difference across the catastrophizing task. It was suggested that an anxious mood tends to increase across a catastrophizing task.
This study categorized interpersonal conflicts in friendships between mothers rearing little children, so called “mum-friends” in Japan. It examined the relation between the typical types of conflicts and the personality traits of the respondents and their friends assessed by the Big Five Scale (Wada, 1996). An internet survey was conducted with 300 women rearing little children. From the result of Hayashi's Quantification Method Type Ⅲ and cluster analysis based on 205 respondents who reported conflicts with their mum-friends, we extracted four clusters of types of interpersonal conflicts. Conflicts concerning criticism of children's discipline and lack of common-sense were frequent in the friendship between mothers; these respondents rated their friends’ Conscientiousness and Agreeableness as relatively low. For conflicts related to socioeconomic disparity, the respondents’ self-reported Conscientiousness was evaluated lower than for the other types of conflict, and the friends’ Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were evaluated relatively high.
This study examined the relation between attachment styles and friendship motivation. Participants were 334 undergraduate students who completed the Relationship Questionnaire, the Friendship Motivation Scale, and an item about the number of their friends. The results of an ANOVA indicated the following. (1) Secure attachment styles were associated with high autonomy and low controlled motivation for friendship, and a large number of friends. (2) Preoccupied attachment styles were associated with high autonomy and controlled motivation for friendship, and a large number of friends. (3) Dismissive attachment styles were associated with average autonomy and controlled motivation for friendship, and a small number of friends. (4) Fearful attachment styles were associated with low autonomy and high controlled motivation for friendship, and a small number of friends.