The scale of Temptation Coping Strategies in Academic Situations (TCSA) was developed for identifying individual differences in self-control strategies in achievement situations. In Study 1, 153 college students were asked about coping strategies, and 40 items were selected for the use in the TCSA. The results of factor analysis showed a four-factor solution (Goal Verification, Distraction, Temptation Avoidance, and Goal Execution). In Study 2, the relationships were examined among the TCSA, the self-regulated learning strategies scale (Fujita, 2010), the academic delay of gratification scale (Ogawauchi et al., 2010), and the scale of awareness of procrastination (Kohama, 2010). The results supported the validity of the TCSA. In Study 3, the TCSA was administered twice two weeks apart to determine test–retest reliability. Finally, implications for future research were discussed.
Older adults inevitably experience physical decline while generally maintaining psychological well-being. One possible explanation for this seemingly paradoxical situation is increasing motivation and competence to regulate emotional states. The present study investigated whether the development of emotion regulation in middle and old age counterbalances the effect of physical decline on mental health. The sample consisted of 1,047 community-dwelling older adults (age 55 to 105 years old). Structural equation modeling showed that age-related decline in physical function suppressed emotion regulation. However, after controlling for physical function, emotion regulation was positively related with age and mental health. The findings support the hypothesis that there are age-related advantages of emotion regulation for older persons to maintain mental health, although their physical decline has a negative impact on mental health.
This study investigated the use of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit social anxiety in graduate and undergraduate students. In Study 1, the results from 55 students and their 162 friends showed a positive relation between the participants' implicit social anxiety (measured by the social anxiety IAT) and state anxiety (others' ratings). Study 2 examined the criterion-related validity of the social anxiety IAT; 32 students completed two IATs to measure social anxiety and shyness. The correlation coefficient between the social anxiety IAT scores and the shyness IAT scores was r=.46 (p<.01). In Study 3, 26 students completed the social anxiety IAT twice with a one-week interval. The analysis yielded a correlation coefficient between the two social anxiety IAT scores over the one-week interval of r=.76 (p<.01). This series of studies demonstrated the validity and reliability of the social anxiety IAT.
This study developed a Japanese version of the Ego-Resiliency Scale (ER89; Block & Kremen, 1996), and examined its reliability and validity. In Study 1, a Japanese version of the ER89 was developed using questionnaire data from 540 undergraduates. Principal component analysis revealed that one of the 14 component structure items corresponded to the original version; this scale had a sufficiently high degree of internal consistency (α=.82). In Study 2, the validity of the scale was tested. The questionnaire was completed by 261 undergraduates (Sample 1) and 240 undergraduates (Sample 2). The scale's concurrent and construct validities were confirmed on the basis of the relationship with other concepts—resiliency and mental health. The Japanese version of the ER89 was shown to have high reliability and validity.
The present study examined the effects of an intervention focused on actively controlling aspects of depressive rumination. Dysphoric and high ruminative undergraduate students were randomly allocated to an experimental group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). The experimental group received two weeks of training focused on disconfirming positive beliefs about depressive rumination and weakening plans and goals which are assumed to contribute to the perseveration of rumination. The experimental group showed significantly decreased frequency of depressive rumination and decreased endorsement of beliefs that rumination increases insight into oneself and situations. In addition, changes in depressive rumination were related to disconfirmation of those beliefs. These results could lead to refinement of techniques for changing depressive rumination. They also were consistent with the model that high ruminative individuals select rumination as a coping strategy. This implication contributes to a better understanding of perseverative depressive rumination.
Thought suppression and rumination, which are maladaptive emotional regulation strategies, make individuals vulnerable to depression. Previous studies have demonstrated a bidirectional, longitudinal relationship between these factors. The present study investigated longitudinally whether the tendency to suppress negative thoughts would exacerbate rumination in interaction with stressors in female college students (N=55; mean age 18.98 years); female college students have been identified as a high vulnerability sample for depression. The results indicated that the level of rumination increased when higher-suppressors had experienced heavy stressors, while stressors did not affect the level of rumination in lower-suppressors. The results suggest that a high tendency to suppress negative thoughts can be a factor which exacerbates the amount of rumination.
The present study developed a Japanese version of the Session Evaluation Questionnaire (J-SEQ), which was translated from the original version of the SEQ (Form 5), and examined its reliability and validity. The respondents were 103 counselors. Exploratory factor analysis (maximum likelihood estimation with varimax-rotation) and confirmatory factor analysis were used to examine the factorial structure of the J-SEQ. The results showed that the J-SEQ had substantial reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and factorial validity. The factorial structure, response tendencies, and the correlations of factors of the J-SEQ were consistent with the original SEQ (Form 5).
Retrieval of a memory can cause forgetting of other related memories, which is known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). This study investigated whether individual differences in effortful control (EC), which reflects executive function ability, predict RIF. After completing a questionnaire which assessed levels of dysphoria, trait-anxiety, and EC, the participants learned category-exemplar pairs. Then, they retrieved half of the exemplars from half of the categories. Finally, a recognition test was given. The results showed that EC was positively correlated with RIF, even when dysphoria and trait-anxiety were controlled. This supports the idea that individual differences in executive function ability predict variability in RIF.
This study investigates whether awareness of the feeling process (AFP), which is an emotional regulation strategy based on focusing process, is adaptive and predicts life satisfaction. University students (N=332) completed questionnaires of AFP, reappraisal, suppression, emotional regulation as measured on the Intercultural Adjustment Potential Scale (ICAPS), and life satisfaction. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that AFP predicts life satisfaction above and beyond what is accounted for by other adaptive emotional regulation measures.
This study examined the Big Five personality traits of abused and neglected children. The Big Five personality trait questionnaire was administered to 134 children. Maltreated elementary school children scored significantly lower than the standardized norms for Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. For Agreeableness, there were significant differences between the maltreated and comparison groups. Maltreated junior high school children scored significantly lower than the norms for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience. In addition, a marginally significant difference between the maltreated and comparison group was detected for Agreeableness.
This study investigated what influences assumed competence in high school students. In Study 1, the association between assumed competence and interpersonal relationships was examined. The results showed that good relationships with school teachers reduced assumed competence. In Study 2, a semi-structured interview of class teachers was conducted about their relationships with the students. The results suggested that teachers' deep understanding of each student in the class was an important factor for the decline of the students' assumed competence.