This paper presents an approach leading to unique interpretations about reliability and validity in the confirmatory factor analysis model for dealing with multitrait-multimethod matrices. The correlated trait-correlated method (CT-CM) model does not necessarily identify the best solution, although it gives a unique interpretation for the data. On the other hand, the correlated trait-correlated method minus one (CT-C (M-1)) model (Eid, 2000) invariably identifies a solution, but the solution is not unique, depending on the arbitrary choice of which method factor is eliminated from the model. In this study, the constraint that the sum of the method factor scores equals zero is introduced into the CT-CM model, which then ensures a unique solution. These three models are applied to 12 actual correlation matrices, and a simulation study to verify the proposed model. The results indicate that the proposed model is more practical than the other conventional models.
Mindfulness training (MT) is growing in popularity as an intervention for generalized anxiety disorders and worry. Theoretical studies suggest that the effectiveness of MT may be mediated by attentional control, mindful awareness, and decentering. However, research has not explicitly examined how these possible mediators predict worrying. We conducted Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with cross sectional data (N=376). We compared multiple models and found that models which used attentional control as an exogenous variable had a better fit than those using it as a mediator. Moreover, SEM revealed that the effect of attentional control on worry was completely mediated by enhancing dispositional mindfulness and decentering. These results suggest that the working mechanism of MT for decreasing worry involves increased attentional control as the chief vehicle for bringing about alternative ways to relate to one's internal process (mindfulness and decentering), which in turn leads to ameliorated worrying.
Studies suggest that people with high and unstable self-esteem had extrapunitive tendencies. However, the relationship between self-esteem instability and positive functions has rarely been tested. This study predicted that people with high and unstable self-esteem would have high expectations for the far future in order to maintain their self-esteem after experiencing negative events. Canadian students (N=146; 40 males, 106 females) participated in a diary survey for seven days. Their levels of self-esteem, self-esteem instability, frequency of negative events, and expectations for the future were measured. As predicted, among those who had high self-esteem and experienced a lot of negative interpersonal events, self-esteem instability was positively related to their expectations for the far future. This result indicates that expectation for the far future functions to decrease perceived threats for negative events among people with high and unstable self-esteem.
Highly frequent comorbidity among personality disorders in DSM-IV has been regarded as a problem. This study quantitatively examined characteristics of overlap and specificity among borderline personality disorder(BPD), dependent personality disorder(DPD) and avoidant personality disorder(APD) tendencies; all of these include dependency as part of the diagnostic criteria. Japanese university students (N=216) completed questionnaires with items about BPD, DPD and APD from the Japanese version of the SCID-II (Takahashi & Osone, 2002) and questions assessing ten personality styles (Nakazawa, 2004a). The results showed that these personality disorder tendencies overlapped in the following ways: higher self-inhibition, related to lacking confidence in their judgments and thoughts, and worrying about what other people think. Although specific BPD and DPD characteristics were found, no specific APD characteristics were identified in this study. The implications of these findings for underlying personality and latent factors of borderline, dependent and avoidant personality disorders are discussed.
Mindfulness is described as a process of bringing a certain quality of attention to moment-by-moment experience. Levels of attention functions have been suggested to predict individual differences in mindfulness. The present study examines how aspects of attention functions are associated with dispositional mindfulness. University students (N=74) completed the Attention Network Test (Fan et al., 2002) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Baer et al., 2006). The results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed an interaction between orienting attention and alerting attention which predicted mindfulness. Simple slope analysis showed that higher orienting attention was associated with higher mindfulness when alerting attention was low-level. On the other hand, higher orienting attention was associated with lower mindfulness when alerting attention was high-level. These results indicate that attention functions are predictors of mindfulness.
The ENDCORE model consists of six components, each corresponding to a different communication skill, which has a hierarchical structure. The ENDCORE model is used in fundamental or practical studies of communication skill. Verification of the reproducibility and clarification of the characteristics of the ENDCORE component scales and items is needed. This article re-examines the structure of the ENDCORE model and the ENDCORE scales using accumulated survey data from 2,184 college students. The findings are approximately the same as those reported in the study of Fujimoto and Daibo (2007). However, the overall fitness of the ENDCORE model was inadequate. Therefore, the ENDCORE model was modified to make it more conceptually valid. These findings define conceptually communication skills, supporting the practical application of the ENDCORE model for communication skills training.
This study examines whether the commonality among three early adulthood and adult attachment relationships reported in previous studies would be replicated in same-sex friendships of young adults, based on the relationships between early adulthood attachment dimensions, emotional experiences in relationships, and evaluation of the relationships. The participants were 106 dyads of young adult friends. The results showed that the anxiety attachment dimension was significantly positively correlated with the individual's negative and positive emotions in the relationship. The avoidance dimension was significantly positively correlated with the individual's negative emotions in the relationship, and significantly negatively correlated with the individual's evaluation of relationship, and marginally negatively correlated with the individual's positive emotions in the relationship. Moreover, the relation between the avoidance dimension and the individual's self evaluation of the relationship was mediated by the individual's positive emotions in the relationship. The results are discussed in terms of attachment and affiliation systems.
This study reports on the development of the Young Women's Appearance-Related Negative Emotions Scale-State Version(YWANES-S) from the standpoint of cognitive-behavioral counseling. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted with female university students (n=165, 185, and 40). The YWANES-S was shown to be a 7-item unifactorial scale with high internal consistency. The scores on the YWANES-S were moderately associated with scales of trait body dissatisfaction, state self-esteem, and negative mood states. Construct validity was confirmed by individuals' differential reactivity to an appearance-related and a non-appearance-related imagery task. This study shows that the YWANES-S has substantial reliability and validity.
This study investigates the process of self-efficacy for reducing depression by focusing concentration on distractions as a mediator. Self-efficacy was one of the effective factors for preventing depression in previous studies. In the present study, participants completed a questionnaire twice with a one-month interval. The results suggest that self-efficacy reduced depression by means of enhancing concentration on distraction. The results also suggest that high depression at Time 1 affected high depression at Time 2, and that high interpersonal stressors during the one-month interval affected low concentration on distraction and high depression at Time 2.
A longitudinal study was conducted to examine the influence of self-reflection on depression. We looked for a unique effect of self-reflection on depression by eliminating the influence of self-rumination because previous studies showed that the influence of self-reflection was likely to be contaminated by self-rumination. Multiple regression analysis showed that self-reflection significantly reduced the maladaptive effects of negative life events on depression, whereas self-rumination exacerbated those influences of stressors. Although previous studies emphasized that suppression of self-rumination contributes to prevention of depression, this study showed that promotion of self-reflection also can contribute to reducing depression.
The present study examined the reliability and validity of the short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and examined the cutoff points for the scale. The reliability of the GDS was confirmed, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.83. To confirm the validity, the GDS data was compared with the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and two factors were extracted. The correlation between the GDS and CES-D for the first factor, named “Depression, Loneliness and Anxiety” was 0.60. There were two cutoff points on the GDS; the first was between 5 and 6, and the second was between 9 and 12.