マインドフルネスとは，“今ここでの経験に，評価や判断を加えることなく，能動的に注意を向けること”として定義される自己の体験に対する特殊な注意の向け方である。マインドフルネスの個人差を規定する要因として，注意機能の関連が指摘されている。しかし，注意機能のどの側面が，どのような交互作用でマインドフルネスに関連するのかについては，これまで明らかにされていない。本研究では，大学生を対象にAttention Network Test（Fan et al., 2002）とマインドフルネス傾向（Baer et al., 2006）を測定した。階層的重回帰分析の結果，注意の喚起機能が低い時には，注意の定位機能はマインドフルネスと正の関連を示す一方で，喚起機能が高い場合には，定位機能はマインドフルネスと負の関連を示した。これらの結果は，マインドフルネスの個人差の規定因として，注意機能を交互作用から捉える必要性を示唆する。
This study reports on the development of the Young Women's Appearance-Related Negative Emotions Scale-State Version(YWANES-S) from the standpoint of cognitive-behavioral counseling. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted with female university students (n=165, 185, and 40). The YWANES-S was shown to be a 7-item unifactorial scale with high internal consistency. The scores on the YWANES-S were moderately associated with scales of trait body dissatisfaction, state self-esteem, and negative mood states. Construct validity was confirmed by individuals' differential reactivity to an appearance-related and a non-appearance-related imagery task. This study shows that the YWANES-S has substantial reliability and validity.
This study investigates the process of self-efficacy for reducing depression by focusing concentration on distractions as a mediator. Self-efficacy was one of the effective factors for preventing depression in previous studies. In the present study, participants completed a questionnaire twice with a one-month interval. The results suggest that self-efficacy reduced depression by means of enhancing concentration on distraction. The results also suggest that high depression at Time 1 affected high depression at Time 2, and that high interpersonal stressors during the one-month interval affected low concentration on distraction and high depression at Time 2.
A longitudinal study was conducted to examine the influence of self-reflection on depression. We looked for a unique effect of self-reflection on depression by eliminating the influence of self-rumination because previous studies showed that the influence of self-reflection was likely to be contaminated by self-rumination. Multiple regression analysis showed that self-reflection significantly reduced the maladaptive effects of negative life events on depression, whereas self-rumination exacerbated those influences of stressors. Although previous studies emphasized that suppression of self-rumination contributes to prevention of depression, this study showed that promotion of self-reflection also can contribute to reducing depression.
The present study examined the reliability and validity of the short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and examined the cutoff points for the scale. The reliability of the GDS was confirmed, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.83. To confirm the validity, the GDS data was compared with the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and two factors were extracted. The correlation between the GDS and CES-D for the first factor, named “Depression, Loneliness and Anxiety” was 0.60. There were two cutoff points on the GDS; the first was between 5 and 6, and the second was between 9 and 12.