Developments in the assessment of general and maladaptive personality traits in children and adolescents have been reviewed in the present paper, with an emphasis on instruments based on the Five-Factor Model (FFM), such as the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC; Mervielde & De Fruyt, 1999), which describes general traits, and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006), which accounts for maladaptive traits. We have additionally discussed measures available in Japanese, to assess traits in children, adolescents, and adults, and pertaining issues in cross-cultural personality research, especially with respect to Western and Asian differences. Finally, a number of key implementation areas for personality assessment have been identified, together with some challenges for this promising field of research.
We examined the effects of altruism in daily life and the Big Five personality traits on professional hospitality. A web-based survey was conducted with 208 participants (ages in the 20's to 50's) who have been engaged in hospitality industries. We conducted multiple regression analyses to infer the effects of altruism toward different types of recipients and Big Five traits on scores from the Japanese-style hospitality scale. The results indicated that altruism toward family members and friends/acquaintances significantly affected hospitality. On the other hand, altruism toward strangers did not affect hospitality. The influence of the Big Five traits differed according to the factors of the hospitality scale.
This study developed a Japanese version of the Academic Delay of Gratification (ADOG) Scale, based on the original language scale created by Zhang, Maruno, Karabenick, and Lauermann (2011), and investigated its reliability and construct validity. Japanese undergraduates (N=394) completed the new scale. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a one-factor structure. The students' ADOG score correlated positively with effortful academic behavior, use of metacognitive strategies, planned studying and the average of weekly study time, and negatively correlated with less sustained studying. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the scale were confirmed.