This study investigated aspects of analogues of depression. Cluster analysis and a symptoms approach were used to identify characteristics of analogues of depression. Patients with major depressive disorder provided the seed points for the depressed cluster, and non-distressed university students provided the seed points for the non-depressed cluster. The results showed that the non-depressed cluster included all the mild-depression subjects and part of the moderate-depression subjects of the distressed university students. On the other hand, the depressed cluster included other moderate-depression subjects and all the severe-depression subjects. These results indicate that the symptoms of mild depression among distressed university students have little in common with severe clinical depression. However there was a sequence of continuity between the symptoms of severe-depression subjects of the distressed university students and patients with severe clinical depression.
This study investigated the occurrence mechanism for “controlling behavior toward a romantic partner.” “The Scale of Separation Anxiety to Romantic Partner” was developed in Study 1 to measure the state anxiety which occurs in a romantic relationship. Two separate samples were used, composed of 291 undergraduates and 370 undergraduates. The scale was confirmed to have sufficient reliability and validity. In Study 2, we developed a scale for controlling behavior toward a romantic partner, with a sample of 586 undergraduates. The factor analysis indicated two factors: Violent Control Behavior and Restraint Control Behavior. Next, the relations of each factor of control behavior and the other variables (separation anxiety to romantic partner, three factors of love, relationship length) were examined. The results showed that the two control behaviors were influenced by an interaction of separation anxiety to romantic partner and relationship length.
Previous studies suggested that people who engaged in reassurance seeking tend to experience interpersonal stress and develop depression. However, few studies examined the relationship between interpersonal stress and reassurance seeking in detail. This study investigated the effects of reassurance seeking on three aspects of interpersonal stress (conflict, inferiority complex, and dislocation). In addition, we examined whether interpersonal stress mediated the effects of reassurance seeking on depression. University students (N=102) completed a self-report questionnaire at baseline (Time 1) and three weeks later (Time 2). The results indicated that an interpersonal inferiority complex mediated the relationships between reassurance seeking behavior and depression. Improving reassurance seeking and an interpersonal inferiority complex, which could be caused by reassurance seeking, may be important to prevent depression in university students.
This study examined the relationships between facets of emotional dysregulation (intensity of emotions, suppression of emotional expression, negative reactivity to emotions, and maladaptive management of emotions), and worry and social anxiety. Questionnaires were completed by 186 students. After controlling for social anxiety, worry was specifically related to maladaptive emotion management. After controlling for worry, social anxiety was specifically related to reduced positive emotional intensity and higher suppression of emotional expression. Other facets of emotional dysregulation (negative emotional intensity and negative reactivity to emotions) were related to both worry and social anxiety. The results are consistent with the findings from previous studies. They extend the literature by showing the effect of expression suppression on social anxiety and the role of valence in emotional intensity.
This research with patients who had myocardial infarctions sought to identify relationships among their attitudes for coping with their illness, support systems, knowledge of treatment, and self-education ability as related to self-management behaviors. A total of 101 patients completed a questionnaire, which was analyzed using path analysis. If patients with myocardial infarctions had a positive attitude for coping with their illness, then their self-education ability regarding treatment was enhanced. Furthermore, their self-education ability promoted self-management behaviors for treatment. A positive attitude about coping with their illness encourages patients to ask questions and appeal to others. As a result, they could receive more organized support from their community, which is expected to promote the patients' self-education ability.
This study examined the relationship between students' strategy profiles and learning performance. Participants (85 vocational school students) were divided using cluster analysis of their questionnaire data into three strategy profile groups (metacognitive and deep-processing profile, high all-strategy profile, and low all-strategy profile). The results of a one-way between subjects ANOVA indicated that the high all-strategy profile students took more notes during class than did the low all-strategy profile students, and had better test scores than the students with the other two profiles. These results indicate that for effective learning, it is important to use various learning strategies in accordance with study content.
The Privacy Consciousness Scale (PCS) was developed to measure privacy consciousness for the self and others, and its reliability and construct validity were examined. Undergraduates completed the PCS in two studies. Factor analysis of their responses on the scale revealed three dimensions: Privacy Consciousness for the Self/Behaviors to Maintain the Privacy of the Self (7 items); Privacy Consciousness for Others (4 items); and Behaviors to Maintain the Privacy of Others (4 items). These studies also examined the relationships of the PCS to information privacy, privacy preferences, empathic concern, and behavioral standards for public space. The results confirm that the PCS has reliability and construct validity.
This research developed a reliable and valid Japanese version of the Free Will and Determinism Plus Scale (FAD+) to measure people's belief in free will. Study 1 developed a Japanese version of the FAD+ using questionnaire data from 203 undergraduates. Study 2 tested the reliability and validity of the Japanese FAD+ in a sample of 362 adults. The results provide evidence that the translated scale has the same factor structure as the original scale. In addition, free will beliefs were associated with locus of control, sense of trust, and belief in a just world, indicating high validity of the scale.
This study investigated the effect of rumination and reflection on self-esteem, contingencies of self-worth, and mental growth from failure. A questionnaire measuring rumination, reflection, self-esteem, contingencies of self-worth, and growth from failure was completed by 203 university students. Results of covariance structure analysis showed the following. Reflection enhanced mental growth from failure, mediated by a higher level of self-esteem. Rumination reduced mental growth from failure, mediated by a lower level of self-esteem. Rumination enhanced mental growth from failure, mediated by a higher level of contingencies of self-worth.
This study investigated the hypothesis that an over-adaptation tendency predicts burnout. The Over-Adaptation Tendency Scale for Adults (OATSAS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were administered to 116 elementary school teachers. Multiple regression analysis showed the following. There was a positive relationship of the total score of the OATSAS, appraisal from others, and focusing on problem children to emotional exhaustion. There was also a positive relationship of the total score of the OATSAS to depersonalization. Regarding personal accomplishment, the results showed a positive influence of need for positive feedback and obsessive-compulsive personality, and a negative influence of appraisal from others.