The d2-R test, developed as a general achievement test in Germany, plays a prominent role in Europe to measure individuals' concentration and attention in both research and in practice. This study developed the d2-R test for Japanese children, and examined its concurrent validity using correlations between d2-R performance and ADHD-RS scores. The results revealed that the d2-R parameters were significantly related to the inattention and hyperactivity–impulsivity scores on the ADHD-RS. The d2-R saves both time and expense for clinical psychologists as well as researchers in Japan, and is appropriate for mass screenings for ADHD.
Personality disorders (PD) include biases of cognition about the self or others in the general diagnostic criteria. Although the relationships between PDs and self-esteem have been clarified, the relationships of PD traits and evaluation affect about others have not been studied. This study examined relationships of PD traits and assumed competence in 304 undergraduates and graduate students. The results showed that individuals with the assumed type of competence had higher scores for borderline and obsessive-compulsive PD traits than other PD traits. The results suggest that maladaptive personality traits involve not only negative self-cognitions but also negative cognitions about others.
Private self-consciousness is classified into self-rumination and self-reflection according to its motivation. Self-rumination is considered maladaptive while self-reflection is considered adaptive for mental health. This study examined which kinds of interpersonal stress events affect self-rumination and self-reflection. We conducted a longitudinal study with undergraduate students. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that the level of self-rumination was increased by events which relate to an inferiority complex. The levels of self-reflection were not affected by any kind of events. This result suggests that interventions for inferiority complex could be effective for reducing the level of self-rumination.
This study investigated how factors affecting close relationships affect text-message dependency. Japanese high school students (N=169) completed a survey describing variables of close relationships (i.e., perceptions of parental controls, attachment to parents, feelings about friends, and peer standards) and self-perception regarding text-message dependency. A longitudinal panel data analysis showed that emotional reactions and relationship maintenance in relation to text-message dependency were positively affected by factors associated with friendship. Furthermore, stronger reliance on friends and feelings of security were associated with higher incidences of excessive text messaging. Relationships between text-message dependency and parental factors were more complex.
This study examined the relationship between autonomous motivation and anticipated regret in self-control dilemmas. We conducted an Internet survey with 200 employed individuals in their twenties. Participants read scenarios of self-control dilemmas (i.e., work vs. pleasure) and indicated if they would regret their decisions one week after and ten years after their decision. The results revealed that those with low motivation and low autonomy anticipated more regret if they did not choose work over pleasure ten years later, than they anticipated one week after the decision. These results support the belief that “doing the right thing” contributes to hyperopia.
This study examined the relationship between forgiveness (for self and for others) and adult attachment styles. A total of 131 undergraduates completed a questionnaire. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that (a) “forgiveness of others” was negatively related to levels of avoidance, (b) “positive forgiveness of self” was negatively related to levels of avoidance and anxiety (c) “negative forgiveness of self” was negatively related to levels of anxiety.