This study examined the relationships among affinity for social withdrawal, social anxiety, and social self-efficacy based on a cognitive model of social phobia (Clark & Wells, 1995). Undergraduate students (101 males and 145 females) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing affinity for social withdrawal, social anxiety symptoms (fear of social situations, and avoidance of social situations) and social self-efficacy. Covariance structural analysis indicated that fear of social situations was positively associated with affinity for social withdrawal. In contrast, the results did not indicate that avoidance of social situations was associated with affinity for social withdrawal. In addition, the results indicated that social self-efficacy was negatively associated with affinity for social withdrawal via fear of social situations. These results suggest that preventive intervention strategies targeting social self-efficacy might be useful in decreasing affinity for social withdrawal.
This study compared children's trust belief in peers with their trust beliefs in teachers and parents in association with the children's loneliness at school. The Children's Trust Beliefs Scale and Loneliness Scale were administered to 176 elementary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Trust Beliefs Scale yielded four factors which measured children's trust beliefs in mother, father, teachers and peers using similar variables. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that the interaction between children's trust beliefs in peers and in teachers significantly contributed to loneliness. This result indicated that children who had high trust beliefs in teachers felt more lonely at school than those who had low trust beliefs in teachers, when they also had low trust beliefs in peers. The findings were discussed in terms of a balance in children's trust in peers and teachers and individual differences in children's characteristics.
The Dark Triad (DT) is a constellation of three socially undesirable personality traits: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. This study developed a Japanese version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (DTDD-J) which used a self-report measure of the DT, and examined its reliability and validity. Undergraduate students (N=246) completed the DTDD-J, three measures of each DT personality trait, and the Big-Five Scale. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the DTDD-J had three group factors corresponding to each DT personality trait, and one general factor of comprehensive DT. Internal consistencies of the DTDD-J were high, except for psychopathy. Concurrent validity and discriminant validity of the DTDD-J were almost consistent with previous research. Although there are remaining issues, the results generally support the reliability and validity of the DTDD-J.
This study investigated the effects of the Type A behavior pattern (Type A) and sense of coherence (SOC) on depressive tendencies in Japanese college students. KG's Daily Life Questionnaire (Yamazaki et al., 1992), the 13 item Sense of Coherence scale (Yamazaki, 1999), and the Self-rating Depression Scale (Fukuda & Kobayashi, 1973) were used to assess Type A, SOC, and depressive tendencies, respectively. A two-way factorial analysis of variance of the data from 245 college students found that those who have higher Type A aggression-hostility showed higher depressive tendencies, and those who have higher SOC showed lower depressive tendencies. Additionally, those participants in the higher SOC group who have higher Type A speed-power showed lower depressive tendencies. These results suggest that depressive tendencies are related to aggression-hostility and speed-power of Type A, and SOC.
This meta-analysis examined gender differences in self-esteem reported in Japanese research studies. The moderating effects of the ages of the participants in the samples, the years when the research studies were conducted, and the types of translation were also examined. Studies that measured self-esteem of Japanese participants, analyzed by gender, using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were searched via a comprehensive literature review. Fifty studies published from 1982 to 2013 were collected. The estimated population effect size (Hedges's g) was .17, indicating that males scored slightly higher in self-esteem than females. Analyses of moderating variables revealed that the effect sizes varied according to the ages of the participants and the years when the research studies were conducted. These findings provide an empirical basis for discussion of gender differences in self-esteem among Japanese people.
The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale is a measure of mindfulness, which is defined as an individual's degree of attention and awareness. In this study, a Japanese version of the scale was developed and validated with 377 Japanese participants ranging in age from 18 to 84 years old. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that the Japanese version had a single-factor structure, and the internal consistency was as high as in the original version of the scale. Similar to the original version, the Japanese version correlated with measures of openness, rumination, action slips, and well-being. Moreover, item response theory analysis revealed that the Japanese version could differentiate between low and very low levels of the latent trait of mindfulness. These results indicate that the Japanese version is an appropriate measure of trait mindfulness among Japanese people. It could be useful for examining the correlation between mindfulness and well-being and the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions.
Rumination has been regarded as the predictors of both the onset and maintenance of depression. This study developed the Japanese version of the Leuven Adaptation of the Rumination on Sadness Scale (LARSS; Raes et al., 2008), which measures causal analytical, understanding, and uncontrollable aspects of rumination. To evaluate the reliability and validity, undergraduate students (N=319) completed the Japanese version of LARSS, depression, mindfulness, and other rumination scales. In addition, other students (N=59) completed the LARSS twice to determine test–retest reliability. Similar to the original LARSS, the Japanese version showed three-factor structure with adequate model fit on confirmatory factor analysis, comprising Causal Analysis, Understanding, and Uncontrollability factors. The three factors had good internal consistency and test–retest reliability in a month. Consistent with prior research, Uncontrollability was only related to depression when the other two factors were controlled. Moreover, mindfulness skills negatively correlated only with Uncontrollability. These results substantiate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the LARSS.
This study examined the relationship between werewolf-game experience and beliefs about lie clues. The participants included 203 undergraduates with no werewolf-game experience, and 42 werewolf-game fans, and 24 werewolf-game stage actors (Jinrou TLPT actors). They were asked to respond to a questionnaire. Two main results were observed. First, there were no significant differences between the three groups regarding their confidence in lie detection. Second, with respect to beliefs regarding the reaction to lying, werewolf-game fans and Jinrou TLPT actors believed that changes were likely to occur in remarks, while undergraduates believed that changes were likely to occur in bodily reactions.
Undergraduate students (N=172) were classified into a chronic stressor group (n=56) or a temporary stressor group (n=116). Data analysis indicated that the relationship between stress and dissociation was β=.58, and the relationship between sense of acceptance and dissociation was β=-.16, but the interaction was not significant. The results suggest we cannot estimate a resilience factor only using sense of acceptance. Other factors are needed as a reinforcing mediation effect. The relationship between mild stress and dissociation is significant, and should not be ignored in favor of studying only traumatic stress.