Narcissistic entitlement can be divided into two subtypes: grandiose entitlement (GE) and vulnerable entitlement (VE). However, there is also psychological entitlement (PE), which is different from narcissistic entitlement. This study examined the similarities and differences of GE, VE, and PE. Participants were 941 Japanese individuals who responded to an Internet survey and 174 Japanese undergraduates who completed a questionnaire-based survey. GE and VE were related to devaluing others, and had dichotomous thinking in common. GE and PE were different from VE in relation to neuroticism. PE was distinct from GE and VE in association with self-esteem. Based on these results, the conceptual features of the three types of entitlements are discussed.
Maladaptive perfectionists tend to set high standards for academic tasks, even if they cannot achieve their standards. How do they sustain high academic motivation? The present study investigated the mediators affecting high academic motivation observed in maladaptive perfectionists. We examined the relationships between perfectionism, contingent self-worth, rumination about failure, and motivation for daily academic tasks in undergraduates (N=185). Multiple mediational analyses indicated that perfectionistic strivings positively and directly affected achievement motivation. Activity-based self-worth marginally mediated between perfectionistic strivings and achievement motivation through competition. Moreover, perfectionistic concerns negatively and directly affected achievement motivation through self-fulfillment, and positively and directly affected failure-avoidant motivation. Rumination about failure significantly mediated between perfectionistic concerns and failure-avoidant motivation. These results suggest that the high academic motivation observed in maladaptive perfectionists is mediated by activity-based self-worth and rumination about failure.
Previous research has suggested that defensive pessimism is an effective cognitive strategy in task-related situations, although its effectiveness is not clear in the context of interpersonal communication. The present study examined the effect of defensive pessimism on intentions involving interpersonal behavior during conversations with strangers. Participants (N=202) completed scales assessing the tendency for defensive pessimism, as well as other personality variables such as shyness and self-esteem. Then, participants read stories of scenarios in which they conversed with strangers and imagined themselves in each situation. Finally, they responded to questionnaires assessing how they would feel and act in such situations. Path analysis indicated that the tendency for defensive pessimism was related to state anxiety and behavioral intentions, such as considering the partners' reactions and respecting their opinions. The role of defensive pessimism in communication with strangers was discussed.
Implicit egotism refers to the idea that people's positive associations about themselves spill over into their evaluations of objects associated with the self. From the perspective of implicit egotism, people would be attracted to others who share their own properties (e.g., names). Our results replicate findings of previous research, indicating that participants were more attracted to people who were assigned with the arbitrary number paired subliminally with the participant's own name. In addition, implicit self-esteem moderated the effect of implicit egotism on interpersonal attraction.
This study examined the relationship between cognitive strategies in pessimists compared to optimists and attention bias by using a gap-overlap task with achievement-related words. The 32 college student participants were divided into two groups: pessimists (n=15) and optimists (n=17). Results of a 2 (pessimists, optimists) ×3 (negative, neutral, positive) mixed ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between groups and stimuli types, and a simple main effect of increased reaction times to positive words for optimists. These findings suggest that optimists have difficulty disengaging from positive achievement-related words.
This study investigated the relationships between approach-avoidance tendencies and depression involving two self-focus processes of reflection and rumination. The results of a path analysis suggest that an approach tendency was negatively related to depression and an avoidance tendency was positively related to depression. An approach tendency was positively related to reflection, and reflection had indirectly a positive relationship with depression through rumination. An avoidance tendency had indirectly a positive relationship with depression through rumination. The relationship between reflection and depression was not significant. These results suggest that an approach tendency might have an important role in enhancing reflection as an adaptive self-focus.
This study investigated the relationships among adequate self-disclosure, recipients' positive responses, and depression by focusing on cognitive reappraisal. The results of path analysis showed that adequate self-disclosure was positively associated with recipients' positive responses. Cognitive reappraisal and recipients' positive responses were positively associated with cognitive reappraisal. Cognitive reappraisal was negatively associated with depression. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal might be an important component in examining the relationship between self-disclosure and depression.
This article describes the development and validation of a Japanese version of the Free Will and Determinism Scale (FWDS) to measure people's beliefs about free will. The scale was evaluated with two samples of 166 and 171 undergraduates. The resulting data fit the two-factor model with general free will as one factor and personal free will as the other. Furthermore, only personal free will was associated with self-control, consistent with expectations indicating the test's validity.