Models of personality and health have grown in complexity as more is discovered about how traits are related to health-related behaviors, morbidity, and mortality. The present article applies a model of personality and health that incorporates longitudinal relations, behavioral and physiological mechanisms, and context to the relation between Five-Factor Model personality traits and body mass index (BMI) and obesity (BMI≥30). Conscientiousness is associated consistently with lower body weight; the relation between the other traits and BMI is more complex. Conscientiousness is also associated with risk of obesity over time, and specific aspects of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism are associated with greater weight gain and are also sensitive to changes in weight over time. Behavioral (e.g., physical activity) and physiological (e.g., inflammation) factors explain part of the association between personality and BMI. Finally, the broader social environment shapes the expression of personality in relation to body weight. This review highlights replicable associations between personality and BMI and potential mechanisms of this association. Future research needs to better address how specific aspects of the social and family environment moderate the relation between personality and BMI and take a lifespan perspective to better incorporate how traits contribute to weight starting in childhood.
Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy are collectively called “Dark Triad” because of they are socially aversive traits. The Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (DTDD) and the Short Dark Triad (SD3) were developed as brief measures of the Dark Triad outside Japan. While the DTDD has recently been translated into Japanese, the SD3 has not yet been translated. The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the SD3 (SD3-J) and to examine its reliability and validity. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the SD3-J had a bi-factor structure. Alpha coefficients for each dimension of the SD3-J showed sufficient levels. Correlation analyses and partial correlation analyses between the SD3-J and existing scales of each Dark Triad trait confirmed the concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the SD3-J. Thus, the SD3-J was confirmed as a useful measure of the Dark Triad in Japan.
Do extremely aggressive individuals attack their partners during all interactions? Previous studies based on romantic partners' interaction suggested stronger association between dispositional aggressiveness and aggressive behavior in cases of prominent provocation and lower self-regulation resources. We conducted an interaction experiment with 64 undergraduates. After completing a questionnaire on aggressiveness, the participants played video games with either uncooperative/cooperative partners and then performed a counting task requiring complete attention. Following these tasks, participants were asked to recommend the level of an unpalatable drink to be served to their game partners. A hierarchical binomial logistic regression analysis revealed that dispositional aggressiveness was an especially robust predictor of serving unpalatable drinks among people characterized with both weak inhibition (spent long time on the attention control task) and greater provocation (uncooperative partners). These results extended the previous studies generalizability from romantic to nonromantic relationships.
Psychopathy is related to low prosocial behavior and high aggression. The lack of empathy is one of the main features of primary psychopathy. It has been robustly indicated that empathy predicts both prosocial behavior and aggression. Empathy is composed of affective empathy and cognitive empathy. However, no studies examined that the affective and cognitive empathy as potential mediators of the relationship between psychopathy and prosocial behavior, and between psychopathy and aggression. This study investigated this mediating model. 132 undergraduate students completed the questionnaires measuring psychopathy, multidimensional empathy, prosocial behavior and aggression. Results showed that primary psychopathy was negatively associated with prosocial behavior, and this relation was mediated by affective empathy, while primary psychopathy was positively associated with physical aggression, and cognitive empathy mediated the relationship between them. This finding will offer the theoretical and practical implications by postulating different mediating process of prosocial and antisocial behavior in psychopathy.
This study investigated the relationships between perfectionism and selective attentions using dot-probe tasks. Sixty-four undergraduates (39 female and 25 male) were asked to perform dot-probe tasks and complete Self-Oriented Perfectionism (SOP) items in Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Cognition Inventory (MPCI). In dot-probe tasks, three kinds of stimulus such as success-related words, failure-related words, and neutral words were included. Selective attention tendencies to target words were measured. Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients between the attention tendencies and perfectionism scale scores were estimated. Gender difference was also investigated. The results showed moderate correlations were observed in males, while little correlation was found in females. These results suggested that male perfectionists tend to pay attention to success or failure.
The purpose of this study was to examine stress-related growth following the dissolution of a romantic relationship, by concentrating on adult attachment styles and the position of dissolution. Participants were 184 college and university students (86 men and 98 women) who had experienced dissolutions in the five years. They were requested to recount their most impressive experience of dissolution and the growth that resulted from it. The results showed that a break-up yielded higher growth than an end to unrequited love. Participants who had experienced a break-up without a clear initiator had difficulty growing. Lower attachment-related avoidance was associated with higher growth, but there was no significant association between attachment-related anxiety and growth.
LINE is a mobile application used mainly for communication with friends. Recently, LINE has become indispensable, particularly for young people. This study explored high school students' cognition about communication through LINE and revealed the effect of their friendships on it. High school students (N=423) completed a LINE scale that was constructed for this study and a Friendship scale in an online survey. Exploratory factor analysis yielded the following six factors: (1) “anxiety about being ignored,” (2) “ease,” (3) “sense of miscommunication,” (4) “increase in aggressiveness,” (5) “obsession with quick reply,” and (6) “sense of being close.” Subsequently, a multiple population analysis suggested that a psychological tendency to avoid being disliked by friends is one of the reasons for high school students' ambivalence about communication through LINE.
This study developed the children's versions of the Strengths Knowledge Scale and Strengths Use Scale, and examined their reliability and validity. The participants were 121 elementary school students in the fifth and sixth grades. The children's versions of the scales showed a single-factor structure, and their internal consistency and high test–retest reliability were confirmed. In addition, strengths knowledge and strengths use were moderately negatively correlated with overall stress response, irritated-angry feeling, and helplessness. These findings provided support for the reliability and validity of the children's versions of the Strengths Knowledge Scale and Strengths Use Scale.
The structure of a scale of generativity was examined and gender differences were investigated among 649 men and women in their forties and fifties in Japan. Results indicated that generativity consists of two factors: generative consciousness and the will to make social contributions. Gender difference was seen in both factors: men had higher generative consciousness while women had higher will to make social contributions. These results suggested that the difference in the social share due to gender influenced the state of generativity among middle-aged people in Japan.