The classic research on shyness was established when Zimbardo, Pilkonis, and Norwood (1974, 1975) reported, among their many results from the Stanford Survey on Shyness (SSS), that approximately 40% of individuals surveyed reported being shy. Forty years after this groundbreaking research, and in the spirit of the contemporary emphasis in the psychological sciences on the importance of replication research (cf., Asendorpf et al., 2013; Vazire & Lucas, 2015), the purpose of the present study was to examine some of the basic findings from this classic research forty years later in an attempt to monitor any possible changes in the personal and situational pervasiveness of shyness. More specifically, in the present study, the responses of the original groups of shy young adults (OS) who completed the SSS in the mid 1970s were compared to those of a group of contemporary shy young adults (CS) who completed the SSS after 2000. Compared to the OS, the pattern of results indicated an increase in the percentage of CS who considered themselves to be presently shy, identified themselves as dispositionally shy (i.e., past, present, and/or always shy), and say strangers and certain authority figures make them feel shy. To help understand this rise in shyness, a possible explanation linking shyness with problematic use of text-based digital communication systems and a diminished capacity for developing basic conversational skills, along with suggestions for promoting such conversational skills, is discussed. Suggestions for future research include addressing issues of replication, documentation of developmental changes, and cross-cultural considerations of the nature and underlying processes of shyness to help understand how shy individuals experience and respond to their shyness.
This study examined the developmental changes in motivation with regard to cooperative learning during childhood. Changes in the mean level of motivation and the stability of motivation were examined with the help of longitudinal data collected over four years (from the third to the sixth grade). Growth curve analyses revealed that intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and introjected regulation decreased with higher grades. Autoregressive model analyses found moderate correlations among data points, showing the stability of motivation. These results suggest the general decline in motivation and stability of motivation across grades during childhood. The developmental features of motivation in childhood are discussed.
Prior studies hypothesize that older people are motivated to regulate their emotions, which, consequently, improves their emotional well-being. The present study aims to examine age differences in emotion regulation among adults by using the revised emotion regulation scale. Studies 1 (N = 153) and 2 (N = 518) examined adolescence and early to late adulthood and confirmed one factor structure of the revised scale for the total sample and for each age group except for adolescence. The model fit and internal consistency were lower in adolescence. Although the revised scale was positively associated with optimism, extraversion, adaptive coping, positive affect, and cognitive appraisal, it was not related to neuroticism, maladaptive coping, negative affect, and expressive suppression, which proved construct validity. As predicted, older participants exhibited better emotion regulation than younger participants. Longitudinal evidence needs to be obtained to investigate whether the development of emotion regulation could improve people's emotional well-being.
The quality of teaching has become a serious issue. However, factors affecting quality of teaching have not been investigated in detail. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between learning motivation for subject instruction and perception of teaching skill and learning time in a half-year short-term longitudinal study with novice teachers (n=128). The results showed that (a) perception of teaching skill was positively affected by orientation toward children and skill orientation, (b) learning time during a workday was positively affected by orientation toward children, (c) learning time during a holiday was positively affected by skill orientation and intrinsic motivation, (d) indifference was positively and skill orientation was negatively affected by perception of teaching skill, and (e) sense of duty was negatively affected by learning time during a holiday. This study indicated that believing in the significance of learning and learning for children would be good motivation for teachers.
The purpose of this study was to examine the expectation–violation theory by specifically focusing on the expectations of intimate others' behaviors. We conducted two studies. In study 1, we developed the scale of expectations about intimate others' behaviors (SEIOB), and investigated its reliability and validity. Factor analysis revealed that SEIOB consisted of three factors: “expectations of emotional support behavior,” “expectations of reliant behavior,” and “expectations of transgressive behavior.” In addition, a certain level of reliability and validity was verified. In study 2, we tested the model of expectation–violation theory. Structural equation modeling revealed that expectations of emotional support behavior affected the cognition of violations positivity, and the cognition of violations positivity affected the expectations of separation. These results suggested that the model of expectation–violation theory could be replicated by utilizing SEIOB.
Previous research has demonstrated that chronic thought suppression and stress together exacerbate rumination. This phenomenon is explained as resulting from the immediate enhancement effect of thought suppression. We measured the 2 components of rumination, brooding and reflective pondering, and examined the effects of thought suppression and stress on them. Results showed that chronic thought suppression and stress independently predicted the level of brooding. These results suggest the existence of a mediator between thought suppression and brooding that is different from the enhancement effect of thought suppression. Future directions for research on the relationship between thought suppression and brooding are discussed.
This study developed and validated a measure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) for adults, which is a comorbid symptom in about half of the adults with ADHD. The aim of this new measure was to overcome the shortcoming of existing scales to discriminate SCT from depression due to contaminated items. The items to measure SCT were identified by a literature review, and their content validity was evaluated by experts. The items were rated in reference to situations when the participants were not depressed. Responses of 471 undergraduate students were used for factor analyses to help select the items. The results of a joint factor analysis, combining depression items and SCT items, showed that this new measure of SCT for adults demonstrated a good ability to discriminate SCT from depression. The resultant 9-item SCT scale showed adequate convergent validity, discriminant validity, and internal consistency.
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a transdiagnostic process predicting diverse psychological symptoms. Various studies have reported that metacognitive beliefs contribute to RNT. However, responsibility to continue thinking, which was one of metacognitive beliefs predicting anxiety, has never been considered. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the mediating effect of RNT in the relationship between responsibility to continue thinking and diverse psychological symptoms. RNT partially mediated the relationship between responsibility to continue thinking and diverse psychological symptoms. Additionally, it was revealed that responsibility to continue thinking and RNT were strong predictors of diverse psychological symptoms. These findings suggest that responsibility to continue thinking is a metacognition that exacerbates RNT and diverse psychological symptoms. Moreover, it is suggested that targeting reduction of responsibility to continue thinking may be an effective intervention for diverse psychological symptoms.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between dissociative tendency and perceived loneliness tendency among junior high and high school students. A longitudinal study (Time 1: September 2014, Time 2: February 2016) was conducted with Japanese students at a private school (n=407; 210 male students and 197 female students). Dissociative tendency was assessed by the Japanese version of Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES), and perceived loneliness tendency was assessed by the Scale of Maladjustment Tendencies in the School. The results of the cross-lagged effect model indicated that dissociative tendency at Time 1 increased the level of perceived loneliness tendency at Time 2. These findings suggest that dissociative tendency may hinder the fostering of positive peer communications and relationships among junior high and high school students.
Undergraduate students (N=363) completed the Empathic-Affective Response Scale, and measures of affect, prosocial behaviors, and aggressive behaviors. Confirmatory factor analyses, based on the item composition of Sakurai et al. (2011), indicated that empathic affective responses toward the positive affect of others cannot be divided between sharing the positive affect of others and having good feelings about the positive affect of others. All aspects of empathic-affective responses were positively correlated with the frequency of prosocial behaviors, even after controlling the effects of positive and negative affect. Empathic affective responses toward the positive affect of others were found to have partial negative correlations with the frequency of aggressive behaviors.
This study investigated the influence of the combination of an athlete's big five personality traits and athletic event (individual/group event) regarding competitive level. A questionnaire survey was conducted with university athletes (N=857, 303 men and 554 women, mean age=19.7 years, SD=1.0). The results showed that competitive level was significantly lower when individual events were combined with high agreeableness and higher when group events were combined with high conscientiousness. These results suggest that the function of the big five personality traits differs depending on their combination with the type of athletic event.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mindfulness and interpersonal stressors on physical and verbal aggressive behaviors. Participants included 107 undergraduate and graduate students. A multiple regression analysis showed that mindfulness significantly reduced the promotive effects of interpersonal stressors on verbal aggressive behavior; however, the same was not evident in the case of physical aggressive behavior. These findings may have important implications for the prevention of aggressive behaviors.
This study investigated the relationships between interpersonal traits (Nurturance and Dominance) measured by the Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) model and Big Five personality traits. As hypothesized, a meta-analysis revealed that the angular location of Extraversion was located at 51 degrees on the IPC space, and Agreeableness was located at 325 degrees. The results also showed that Extraversion and Agreeableness were strongly correlated with Interpersonal traits than with Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness. The angular locations of Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness were 347, 224, and 46 degrees, respectively.
Positive metacognitive beliefs about worry (positive beliefs) are one of the purported factors exacerbating various psychological symptoms. However, their actual predictive power is weak. Considering that worry has partial adaptive effects by motivating problem-solving, positive beliefs contributing to worry may also have adaptive aspects. Based on previous studies, the present study hypothesized that attentional control moderated the relationship between positive beliefs and problem-solving style. Specifically, positive beliefs were related to the adaptive problem-solving style of individuals with high attentional control. Results suggested that the adaptive aspects of positive beliefs may weaken the relationship between positive beliefs and various psychological symptoms.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of motivation on the cooperative learning activities of elementary school children. Fourth to sixth-grade children (N=498) participated in a longitudinal study with two time points. A path analysis revealed that children's autonomous motivation was related to later amount of peer modeling, academic help-seeking, and reciprocal learning. The importance of motivation in cooperative learning activities is discussed.
The present study examined the relationship between sociosexuality and mating concerns. Sixteen female undergraduates and fourteen male undergraduates participated in the experiment. Participants passed through the right side of an opposite-sex confederate and entered a laboratory. They were asked to answer questions pertaining to sociosexuality and interest in the confederate. The results showed that the relationship between sociosexuality and interest in the confederate was significant among men; no such relationship emerged among women. For unrestricted men, mating may be an important concern in social life.