The classic research on shyness was established when Zimbardo, Pilkonis, and Norwood (1974, 1975) reported, among their many results from the Stanford Survey on Shyness (SSS), that approximately 40% of individuals surveyed reported being shy. Forty years after this groundbreaking research, and in the spirit of the contemporary emphasis in the psychological sciences on the importance of replication research (cf., Asendorpf et al., 2013; Vazire & Lucas, 2015), the purpose of the present study was to examine some of the basic findings from this classic research forty years later in an attempt to monitor any possible changes in the personal and situational pervasiveness of shyness. More specifically, in the present study, the responses of the original groups of shy young adults (OS) who completed the SSS in the mid 1970s were compared to those of a group of contemporary shy young adults (CS) who completed the SSS after 2000. Compared to the OS, the pattern of results indicated an increase in the percentage of CS who considered themselves to be presently shy, identified themselves as dispositionally shy (i.e., past, present, and/or always shy), and say strangers and certain authority figures make them feel shy. To help understand this rise in shyness, a possible explanation linking shyness with problematic use of text-based digital communication systems and a diminished capacity for developing basic conversational skills, along with suggestions for promoting such conversational skills, is discussed. Suggestions for future research include addressing issues of replication, documentation of developmental changes, and cross-cultural considerations of the nature and underlying processes of shyness to help understand how shy individuals experience and respond to their shyness.
Undergraduate students (N=363) completed the Empathic-Affective Response Scale, and measures of affect, prosocial behaviors, and aggressive behaviors. Confirmatory factor analyses, based on the item composition of Sakurai et al. (2011), indicated that empathic affective responses toward the positive affect of others cannot be divided between sharing the positive affect of others and having good feelings about the positive affect of others. All aspects of empathic-affective responses were positively correlated with the frequency of prosocial behaviors, even after controlling the effects of positive and negative affect. Empathic affective responses toward the positive affect of others were found to have partial negative correlations with the frequency of aggressive behaviors.
This study investigated the influence of the combination of an athlete's big five personality traits and athletic event (individual/group event) regarding competitive level. A questionnaire survey was conducted with university athletes (N=857, 303 men and 554 women, mean age=19.7 years, SD=1.0). The results showed that competitive level was significantly lower when individual events were combined with high agreeableness and higher when group events were combined with high conscientiousness. These results suggest that the function of the big five personality traits differs depending on their combination with the type of athletic event.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mindfulness and interpersonal stressors on physical and verbal aggressive behaviors. Participants included 107 undergraduate and graduate students. A multiple regression analysis showed that mindfulness significantly reduced the promotive effects of interpersonal stressors on verbal aggressive behavior; however, the same was not evident in the case of physical aggressive behavior. These findings may have important implications for the prevention of aggressive behaviors.
This study investigated the relationships between interpersonal traits (Nurturance and Dominance) measured by the Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) model and Big Five personality traits. As hypothesized, a meta-analysis revealed that the angular location of Extraversion was located at 51 degrees on the IPC space, and Agreeableness was located at 325 degrees. The results also showed that Extraversion and Agreeableness were strongly correlated with Interpersonal traits than with Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness. The angular locations of Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness were 347, 224, and 46 degrees, respectively.
Positive metacognitive beliefs about worry (positive beliefs) are one of the purported factors exacerbating various psychological symptoms. However, their actual predictive power is weak. Considering that worry has partial adaptive effects by motivating problem-solving, positive beliefs contributing to worry may also have adaptive aspects. Based on previous studies, the present study hypothesized that attentional control moderated the relationship between positive beliefs and problem-solving style. Specifically, positive beliefs were related to the adaptive problem-solving style of individuals with high attentional control. Results suggested that the adaptive aspects of positive beliefs may weaken the relationship between positive beliefs and various psychological symptoms.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of motivation on the cooperative learning activities of elementary school children. Fourth to sixth-grade children (N=498) participated in a longitudinal study with two time points. A path analysis revealed that children's autonomous motivation was related to later amount of peer modeling, academic help-seeking, and reciprocal learning. The importance of motivation in cooperative learning activities is discussed.
The present study examined the relationship between sociosexuality and mating concerns. Sixteen female undergraduates and fourteen male undergraduates participated in the experiment. Participants passed through the right side of an opposite-sex confederate and entered a laboratory. They were asked to answer questions pertaining to sociosexuality and interest in the confederate. The results showed that the relationship between sociosexuality and interest in the confederate was significant among men; no such relationship emerged among women. For unrestricted men, mating may be an important concern in social life.