This study adapted the ECR-RS for children into Japanese, to measure attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance, and examined its reliability and validity. Participants were 260 boys and 280 girls in Grade 4–6 (mean age=10.5 years). It examined whether the ECR-RS for children could be assumed to be based on 2 factors (attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance). We verified its reliability with tests of internal consistency and test–retest correlation at 5 months, and examined its validity with theoretically related or unrelated variables (attachment security, global self-esteem, emotional intelligence, empathy, life satisfaction, social anxiousness, loneliness, friendship satisfaction, and athletic competence). The results generally supported our predictions. In sum, the ECR-RS for children appears to have adequate psychometric properties of validity and reliability.
Some theories state that there is a relation between narcissism, shame, and humiliation, but few studies have been conducted on this relation in Japan. In this study, 199 university students (both undergraduate and graduate) answered a questionnaire measuring pathological narcissism, shame, humiliation, and stress response. Using structural equation modeling, we examined the influence the two types of narcissistic tendency had on the participants’ response to stress and how shame and humiliation would mediate narcissism. The results showed that, in a private setting, a stress response was triggered to mediate shame and humiliation in the case of a tendency for vulnerable narcissism.
In this study, we examined the moderating effect of well-being and gratitude on the relationships between negative meta-cognitive beliefs as diathesis and generalized anxiety/depressive symptoms. The participants included 173 undergraduate students. According to the results of hierarchical multiple regression, well-being significantly buffered the relationships between negative meta-cognitive beliefs and generalized anxiety symptoms/depressive symptoms; on the other hand, gratitude did not significantly buffer the relationships. The Japanese have potentially negative interpersonal relationships due to being less willing to seek social support from those they are close to. Therefore, when they feel gratitude, indebtedness also occurs along with it. In this study, such findings suggest that because gratitude and indebtedness coexist, gratitude is not a buffering factor in Japan. To conclude, we suggest that the effect of intervention using improved well-being to buffer the relationships between negative metacognitive beliefs and generalized anxiety/depressive symptoms can be effective in Japan, while increased gratitude cannot be expected to buffer the relationships.
In this study, we investigated the effects of grit (consistency/perseverance) on burnout tendency (emotional exhaustion/depersonalization/personal accomplishment) and social status using an online survey of human service professionals (doctors, nurses, and care workers; 233 males, 217 females). We predicted that the doctors’ grit scores would be highest if grit predicts social success. However, there were no differences in grit scores between the different occupations. On the other hand, consistency was higher in managerial than non-managerial positions. In addition, we examined the impact of grit on burnout tendency. The analysis showed that perseverance suppresses depersonalization and personal accomplishment, and consistency suppresses emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Quantile regression revealed that grit does not increase burnout in any percentile, whereas suppression of burnout tendency changes as symptoms progress.
This study examined the function of empathizing–systemizing in the process of cognitive appraisal/coping with interpersonal stressors, and its relation to mental health condition (expressed as mental distress). Questionnaires obtained from 1090 undergraduate students were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results confirmed that empathizing–systemizing influenced cognitive appraisal, and cognitive appraisal influenced coping choice. Further, the selected coping had a positive or negative effect on mental distress. That is, the relationship between cognitive style and coping was mediated by cognitive appraisal. In part, significant direct passes were observed between cognitive style and coping. In the relationship between coping and mental distress, interpretation/pastime decreased mental distress whereas problem avoidance increased mental distress. Gender differences were found in the relationship between desire for problem resolution/support and mental distress.
This study investigated the psychological factors affecting the disclosure of information about others on Twitter. A web-based survey was conducted with high-school and university students on Twitter, to examine the disclosure of information about friends and acquaintances on their accounts, during the past month. Participants also responded to scales assessing psychological factors, including privacy consciousness. Results indicated that those with low scores of consciousness and behaviors regarding self-privacy were prone to disclosing information about their friends and acquaintances. Moreover, need for popularity and risk perception of crime positively affected disclosure. However, consciousness and behaviors related to privacy of others had little effect on disclosure. The above results were seen for both high school and university students.
This paper compared the teamwork competency of university students when graduating. Participants and non-participants in a skills training conducted at university to develop teamwork competency (Tabata, 2016) took part in this study. They completed self-report scales assessing general social skills, teamwork competency, communication, team orientation, back-up, monitoring, and leadership, 20 months after completing the training. Results indicated that compared to non-participants, participants in the skills training possessed higher social skills scores and many sub-elements of teamwork competency when graduating.
The purpose of the study was to focus on the prejudice toward people receiving welfare and to identify the psychological factors related to such prejudice. Participants included 193 university students (104 male and 89 female, M = 19.5 years). Links among the participants’ self-esteem, nationalism, perspective taking, and prejudice toward people receiving welfare were examined. Multiple regression analysis revealed that prejudice was positively related to nationalism and negatively related to perspective taking. Implications for mitigating criticism toward people receiving welfare are discussed.
This study examined the frequencies and effects of three kinds of interpersonal stress coping (positive relationship-oriented, negative relationship-oriented, and postponed-solution coping) with each of the three types of interpersonal stressors in friendships (interpersonal conflict, interpersonal blunders, and interpersonal friction) on mental health and subjective well-being. Participants were 951 college students. Positive relationship-oriented coping was used most frequently in interpersonal blunders; negative relationship-oriented coping was used most often in interpersonal conflict; and postponed-solution coping was used least frequently in interpersonal blunders. The associations between each type of interpersonal stress coping and each dependent variable (depression, loneliness, and relationship satisfaction) were almost constant across the three interpersonal stressors.
This research developed a Japanese version of the Implicit Theory of Willpower for Strenuous Mental Activities Scale (ITW-M) using data from two questionnaires completed by undergraduates. Study 1 (N=2,493) demonstrated a factor structure similar to the original scale and partial measurement invariance across gender. Furthermore, implicit theories of willpower were significantly associated with self-control and life satisfaction, indicating the validity of this scale. Study 2 (N=1,177) tested whether self-control demands moderated the effects of implicit theories of willpower on grades. The results showed that limited theories were associated with lower GPAs only among students taking heavy course loads, which suggests successful conceptual replications.
This study aimed to investigate whether sadism is related to high competitive performance and whether this relationship is mediated by gamesmanship. Responses to sadism and gamesmanship scales of 339 university students majoring in physical education were analyzed. Results showed that sadism is significantly related to high competitive performance in relative competitions, and that this relationship is mediated by gamesmanship. Our findings suggest that sadism has positive aspects, despite its negative ones. This study contributes to the development of an accurate understanding of sadism.
This study aimed to investigate the relationships of the antisocial personality traits called the Dark Triad, which includes Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, with life skills including the ability to adapt to society (i.e., decision-making, interpersonal relationships, effective communication, and coping with emotions). A total of 272 university students completed the Japanese version of the Short Dark Triad and Life Skills Scale for Adolescents and Adults. Multivariate multiple regression analysis showed that Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy related to life skills in different ways. These results support the findings of previous studies suggesting the link between the Dark Triad and social adjustment.
The aim of the current study was to investigate the validity of the Japanese version of the SOSS. We translated the 58 SOSS items into Japanese, after receiving permission from the creator. A total of 1909 individuals from the general public, who were not suicide bereaved, responded to the Japanese version of the SOSS through an internet survey. The factor structure observed was similar to prior research. Cronbach’s α for the three factors demonstrated appropriate internal consistency. The Japanese version of the SOSS was confirmed through factor analysis to be valid and reliable.