The purposes of this study were to develop the Japanese version of the Emotional Approach Coping Scales (EAC) and examine the relationship between dispositional emotion-focused coping and daily mood. In study 1, participants completed the EAC twice, five weeks apart. Results showed that the EAC consisted of two subscales, Emotional Processing (EP) and Emotional Expression (EE), both of which had high reliability and validity. In study 2, participants completed a battery of questionnaires containing the EAC and Profile of Mood States (POMS).
Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that EE was positively associated with “anger-hostility” in men and women, and with “fatigue” in men. Meanwhile, EP was positively associated with “vigor” in men and women, and negatively associated with “fatigue” in men. Moreover, the EE×EP interaction was significant for Fatigue in women.
Limitations of utilizing this scale are discussed, along with promising research in the future.
The present study examined the associations between experiential avoidance and stress coping, and the role of experiential avoidance in predicting psychological stress responses. Undergraduates (N=357, 119 men) completed the Japanese version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-J), Tri-Axial Coping Scale-24 (TAC-24), and Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted by combining TAC-24 and AAQ-J items. From the results, 2 independent factors related to experiential avoidance and 7 independent factors related to stress coping behaviors were extracted. Moreover, hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted by entering TAC-24 scores in Step 1 and AAQ-J scores in Step 2 with SRS-18 scores as the dependent variable. Results indicated that the AAQ-J scores predicted scores on each SRS-18 subscale. These results suggest that the concept of experiential avoidance is different from that of stress coping and that experiential avoidance is related to the psychological stress responses.
Previous studies have indicated that defensive pessimists (DPs) show the same high performance as strategic optimists (SOs), though they exhibit lower self-esteem and higher anxiety than SOs. In general, high anxiety inhibits subsequent performance. It is not clear why DPs are able to perform well on tasks despite their low self-esteem and high anxiety. In the two studies conducted here, we focused on the implicit self-esteem of DPs as well as their explicit self-esteem. In Study 1, differences in explicit self-esteem among four types of cognitive strategies (DP, SO, RP, UO) were investigated. In Study 2, differences in implicit self-esteem were examined. Results showed that DPs had the same high implicit self-esteem as SOs, although they reported lower explicit self-esteem.
This study investigates whether monologue-like tweets are monologues. A questionnaire targeting undergraduate students was conducted three times (in December 2012 (n=240), February–April 2015 (n=92), and January 2016 (n=134) ). As a result, the frequency of monologue-like tweets was related to private speech tendency in the sample from 2012 and social speech tendency in the sample from 2016. Furthermore, with every year, the number of people who answered “taking notes” as a substitute for monologue-like tweets decreased, while that of persons answering “telling others” increased. These results suggest that the role of monologue-like tweets has changed from “private speech” to “social speech.”
This study investigated the factors influencing the three dimensions of persecutory ideation, frequency, conviction, and distress, in 48 patients with schizophrenia. Causal attribution, anxiety, and depression were assumed to influence persecutory ideation. Causal attribution was found to comprise the three dimensions of internality, stability, and globality. Additionally, the dimension of internality was classified into internal circumstances, external circumstances, and external people. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that depression and globality influenced the frequency. Similarly, depression, and the internality (external-person) and globality dimensions influenced conviction. Depression and anxiety also influenced distress. These results suggest that the three dimensions of persecutory ideation were influenced by different factors.
Information privacy is known to negatively correlate to disclosure of personal information over the Internet to the public. This study investigated the relationship between information privacy and the disclosure of personal information over the Internet to strangers by measuring disclosure behavior in the real-world situation of manipulating the expectancy of meeting face-to-face with a stranger. Japanese undergraduates were asked to chat on the Internet with an unknown undergraduate. Participants in the expectancy group were informed that they were scheduled to meet face-to-face with their partner several days later, whereas participants in the no expectancy group were not so informed. Before chatting, participants were asked to create a profile to show their partner. The results indicated that in the no expectancy group, privacy regarding identifiable information (e.g., a participant's real name) correlated negatively with the degree of expressing information about their inner selves in their profile. However, information privacy did not correlate with the disclosure of personal information in the expectancy group, although motivation for chatting correlated positively with the number of participants who revealed their information and the degree of expression about their inner self in their profile.
The purpose of this study is to examine mutual influences on self-improvement in romantic relationships. On the basis of attachment theory, for participants in romantic relationships, we assessed individuals' attachment and caregiving tendencies and conducted an analysis based on the Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). The results indicated an actor-effect of attachment avoidance on individuals' own self-improvement and some partner-effects on their attachment and caregiving. In addition, the results indicated an interaction effect between women's attachment avoidance and men's caregiving hyperactivation to women's self-improvement. Therefore, within romantic relationships, it can be concluded that self-improvement is mutually influenced by attachment and caregiving tendencies.
Group socialization theory is the theory focusing on effect of peers on personality development. The theory asserts that the processes of assimilation and differentiation within peer groups have a crucial effect on personality development. However, the degree to which personality development is affected by such assimilation and differentiation is neglected, since many existing researches manipulate assimilation and differentiation through experimental methods. In order to test the impact of peers on personality development, a scale was developed to assess within-group assimilation and differentiation in the context of extracurricular activities. Analyses partially supported the reliability and validity of the scale.
Annual changes in the development of multi-dimensional empathy in junior high school students were examined through assessments conducted at three time points. The longitudinal data were analyzed using estimates of missing data, and a repeated measures design test using the Full Information Maximum Likelihood method. Differences in mean values at the three time points and correlations among the assessment points were examined. Results indicated that Personal Distress and Empathic Concern were the highest in the first grade, followed by that in the third and second grades, respectively. Perspective-Taking was the highest in the third grade, followed by that in the second and first grades, respectively. Fantasy decreased in the second grade as compared to that in the first grade, and it increased in the third grade as compared to that in the first grade. It is concluded that the developmental trajectory of multi-dimensional empathy in early adolescence differs for the different aspects of empathy.
This study aimed to demonstrate experimentally that other-oriented motivation increases the amount of work. We reproduced a scene in which college students participate in part-time work in the laboratory and examined whether other-oriented motivation would lead to an increase in the amount of work in part-time jobs outside the specified time using Bayesian estimation. Findings revealed that participants with conditions that evoked other-oriented motivation would engage in more overtime part-time work than would participants in the control condition. It was suggested that other-oriented motivation increases the amount of work.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of transient exercise on the mood in people with sensory sensitivity. The participants were 23 university students. They were randomly assigned into two groups and were required to participate in a rope-jumping exercise for 10 min. The results showed that the relaxed mood of participants with low sensory thresholds significantly decreased and was lower than that of participants with standard sensory thresholds, and their pleasurable mood was stabilized. These results suggest that people need to select adequately intense exercises or alternative interventions depending on their level of sensitivity.
We developed the Japanese version of the Vividness of Odor Imagery Questionnaire (VOIQ). Responding to a survey, 556 participants completed the VOIQ and the Japanese version of the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ). Factor analysis verified the one-factor structure and demonstrated it to be sufficiently reliable (Cronbach's α=.80). The validity of the questionnaire was also confirmed by middle correlations of the total score between VVIQ and VOIQ. The results indicated the validity and reliability of the questionnaire.
This study investigates how many university students who do not desire a steady romantic relationship become involved in a steady relationship or want to have a romantic relationship in 1 year. A total of 96 students who did not desire a steady romantic relationship at Time 1 were asked about the status of their romantic relationship at Time 2. Those who had the highest score for “the influence of past romantic relationships” were identified, and 29 were found to desire a romantic relationship. The reasons for entering into or desiring a romantic relationship were categorized into seven groups.
The purpose of this paper was to examine a process model in which friendship contingent self-esteem was related to satisfaction through social achievement goals and friendship in junior high school students. Junior high school students (n=772) completed the questionnaire. A path analysis revealed that friendship contingent self-esteem was related to satisfaction through social achievement goals and friendship. The results suggest that friendship contingent self-esteem had positive and negative effects on the satisfaction process.