The relationship between the feeling function of Jung’s psychological types and acceptance of responses regarding empathic images was investigated. Empathic images were assessed by imagining that a child was showing three feeling expressions of expectation, anger, and sorrow to the mother, and consequently imagining how the mother accepted those feelings. Graduate students (N=116) completed the Empathic Image Task, and the Jung Psychological Types Scale (JPTS). The results showed that the feeling function of women and the intuition function of men were positively correlated with the acceptance of responses regarding empathic images about a child’s expression of expectation. However, neither general attitudes nor psychological functions correlated with a child’s anger or sorrow. These results suggest that the way feeling function shows acceptance of responses regarding empathic images differs according to gender of the participants and the quality of feeling contents.
The purpose of this study was to examine individuals’ sense of competence contained in their sense of coherence (SOC). There are two aspects of competence: self-esteem (SE) and assumed-competence (AC). Self-esteem relates to essential aspects rooted in personal experiences, while assumed-competence pertains to illusory aspects not rooted in personal experiences but based on undervaluing others. Data of 183 college students were analyzed. Results indicated a positive correlation between SOC and SE, and a negative correlation between SOC and AC. Thus, sense of competence contained in SOC may not be based on illusory aspects and on undervaluing others.
Nostalgia is defined as “a sentimental longing or wistful reflection for the past.” This study examined the individual differences on the effect of emotions on music-evoked nostalgia. The study focused on traits associated with positive and negative emotions, specifically, dysphoria and subjective happiness. Participants listened to nostalgic music before and after responding to a questionnaire measuring traits and mood states. Results showed that the degree of music-evoked nostalgia was reduced only when levels of dysphoria and subjective happiness were both low. This is the first study to demonstrate the relationship between nostalgia evoked by music, and traits associated with positive emotion.
This study examined the moderating effects of fear of negative evaluation (a personality variable) on the relationships between interpersonal stress coping and mental health problems among adolescents. Participants were 277 undergraduate and graduate students. They completed the Interpersonal Stress Coping Scale (constructive, distancing, and reassessing coping), measures of mental health problems (depression and loneliness), and an individual difference measure of fear of negative evaluation. Constructive coping was marginally and positively related to depression only among people with low levels of fear of negative evaluation. Results also indicated that constructive coping was marginally and negatively correlated with loneliness only among people with high levels of fear of negative evaluation.
This study investigated the relationships between personality prototypes and life skills to understand the characteristics of Resilients, Overcontrollers, Undercontrollers, and Not identifiables. Hierarchical cluster analyses using Ward’s method and one-way ANOVA with multiple comparisons using Holm’s method indicated that Resilients tended to adopt adaptive behaviors and thoughts, and Overcontrollers had similar tendencies as Resilients. Additionally, Undercontrollers showed a tendency to adopt active interpersonal behaviors and thoughts, and Not identifiables tended to adopt accepting interpersonal behaviors and thoughts. These results provide new findings on the characteristics of individuals classified as different personality prototypes.
College students practiced group-based mindfulness meditation training every day for two weeks. Fifteen students each in the training and control groups completed a questionnaire on stress responses four times (before training, one week after training began, and just after and two weeks after training ended). The trained students also answered a decentering measure at the same four times and evaluated their mood states before and after everyday meditation. Both the trained students and the controls reported lower depression two weeks after the training ended. The trained students’ mood states also changed to being pleasant after the daily meditation.
The purpose of this study was to examine the reciprocal causal relationships between beliefs about learning and learning strategies, which, although suggested by previous research, have been lacking sufficient empirical evidence. Undergraduates (N=105) completed self-reported questionnaires to indicate beliefs about learning including strategy orientation, and learning strategy use consisted of meta-cognitive strategy, deep-processing strategy, and autonomous help-seeking. Cross-lagged structural equation analyses revealed cross-lagged effects between strategy orientation and learning strategies. Results suggest that beliefs about learning and learning strategy use have reciprocal causal relationships.
The aim of this study was to develop a Japanese version of the Game Addiction Scale (GAS7-J) and investigate its validity and reliability. The GAS7-J was translated using back translation. In the study, 352 Japanese adolescents responded to a questionnaire which included the GAS7-J. Factor analysis revealed a factor structure similar to the original scale, with higher internal consistency. Additionally, the GAS7-J correlated with both time spent on games and loneliness to a similar degree as in a previous study. In conclusion, the GAS7-J has an acceptable level of validity and reliability.