This study examined the influence of interpersonal stressors, and interpersonal stress coping methods, on depression among teachers. Interpersonal stressors include 1) interpersonal conflict; 2) interpersonal blunders; and 3) interpersonal friction. Interpersonal stress coping methods are 1) positive-relationship oriented; 2) negative-relationship oriented; or 3) postponed-solution oriented. Participants were 424 teachers from preschools, elementary/middle/high schools, and special needs schools. All three types of interpersonal stressors, and the negative-relationship oriented coping method, had significant and positive influences on depression. In contrast, the postponed-solution coping method had a significant and negative effect on depression.
This study developed a scale for evaluating the self-expression styles of university students and then verified its reliability and validity. Participants were 186 university students who were asked to complete a questionnaire containing questions about self-expression, shyness, aggressiveness, and assertion. The factor analysis revealed a scale consisting of four factors: assertive, aggressive, submissive, and indirect. Internal consistency was found to be sufficient, and partial validity was confirmed. These results indicate that the scale is useful for measuring the tendencies of an individual’s self-expression.
This study aimed to validate a model in which anger-in mediates anger rumination resulting in anger-out by focusing on the subconcepts. Questionnaires including an anger rumination scale and items on anger expression were distributed to 244 female university students. A covariance structure analysis revealed an adequate fit of the assumed model, implying that although anger-in reduced anger-out, it increased anger-out indirectly by mediating anger rumination.
This study investigated the effect of adult attachment on altruistic behavior and the mediating role of empathy. Nine hundred students answered an online survey, in which they were asked about adult attachment, empathy, and altruistic behavior towards family members, friends, and other people. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that while empathic concern mediated negative effects of attachment avoidance and positive effects of attachment anxiety on altruistic behavior, personal distress mediated negative effects of attachment anxiety on altruistic behavior.
The present study examined the relationships of sunshine duration with extraversion and neuroticism. Previous studies suggested that individuals living in regions that receive little direct sunlight tend to experience depression and lack of sleep, which are associated with particular personality traits. Moreover, they are associated with increases in the amount of serotonin with longer daylight durations. We used a Japanese dataset including 18,922 adults (9,227 females; mean age: 47.74) and conducted a prefecture-level analysis. Results of multiple regression analysis indicated that neuroticism was negatively associated with sunshine duration while extraversion was not. The results showed that sunshine duration may explain the variance of regional differences in personality traits.
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the actual circumstances of involvement in gambling, and (b) to investigate the relationships between levels of the gambling problem and the Big Five personality traits among Japanese adults. Nine hundred Japanese adults were asked to complete a web-based questionnaire to measure their levels of involvement in gambling and personality traits. The results indicated that approximately 47% of the participants had engaged in gambling before. In addition, a positive relationship was observed between levels of gambling involvement and Neuroticism, while Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were negatively related to levels of gambling involvement.