Individuals with high autistic traits experience elevated levels of social anxiety. The present study investigates the characteristics of social anxiety among adolescents with high autistic traits. University students (N=395) completed questionnaires seeking to determine autistic traits (Autism-Spectrum Quotient; AQ), social anxiety, self-esteem, and public self-consciousness. Results indicated that highly autistic students (AQ≧33, N=32) are more socially anxious than are those in the control group and differ in that they are most socially anxious about “fitting among peers.” Autistic traits significantly moderated the relationship between public self-consciousness and the social anxiety of “fitting among peers,” such that there was no significant relationship among the highly autistic students. However, even among highly autistic students, increased public self-consciousness influences social anxiety in terms of “worrying about others and oneself,” “being embarrassed in social situations,” and “feeling uneasy about eye contact,” while reduced self-esteem influences overall social anxiety. Low self-esteem mediated the relationship between autistic traits and social anxiety, but the direct effect remained.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Highly Sensitive Child Scale for Adolescence (HSCS-A) and examine its validity and reliability. The original scale was developed to measure individual sensory processing sensitivity from childhood to adolescence, employing the framework of Differential Susceptibility Theory. The participants of this study were 942 Japanese students (in 7th to 10th grades); of these, 44% were female and 56% were male students. The exploratory factor analysis suggested the three-factor structure of the HSCS-A with Ease of Excitation (EOE), Aesthetic Sensitivity (AES), and Low Sensitivity Threshold (LST) fits better with a bifactor model, including an orthogonal general sensitivity factor, than a three-factor model. Construct validity was tested in reference to personality and affectivity, with the results suggesting its discriminant validity; further analysis also confirmed sufficient internal consistency. Overall results suggested that the HSCS-A is a valid scale for measuring adolescent sensitivity.
The purpose of the present research was to examine the relationship between Dark Triad (Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy) and manipulation strategies (Terashima & Kodama, 2004). Participants were 210 Japanese undergraduates who completed the Short Dark Triad (SD3-J) and the scale of manipulation strategies. Structural equation modeling showed that Machiavellianism and Psychopathy were positively affected by manipulating others from both superior and inferior positions, as well as by manipulation of feelings. Narcissism had a positive effect on the manipulation of feelings from a superior position. The results indicate that there is evidence of the validity of the SD3-J and people who have high Dark Triad tendencies tend to use not only the manipulation of behavior from the superior position, but also the manipulation of feelings from the inferior position.
This study examined the relationship between hikikomori tendency, effortful control (EC), and attention bias. University students (40 males and 60 females) performed dot-probe tasks and completed self-report questionnaires to assess hikikomori tendency and EC. The dot-probe tasks featured three types of stimuli: positive words, negative words, and neutral words. The engagement score and difficulty to disengage score were measured as attention bias score. The results of moderated mediation analysis by gender indicated that EC and attention to positive stimuli significantly reduced the hikikomori tendency. Moreover, attention to positive stimuli also reduced the hikikomori tendency in males with more EC. Further, in females, EC was directly negatively associated with the hikikomori tendency as well as indirectly negatively associated with the hikikomori tendency, through the mediation of paying attention to positive stimuli. Thus, enhancement of attention to positive stimuli could help support the hikikomori tendency.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of comments including gender-role expectations on junior high school students’ self-presentation. We also examined whether the influence of self-presentation varies depending on the receiver’s sex and gender-role views. One hundred fifty-one junior high school students (77 male and 74 female students) participated in this study. The participants were divided into eight groups according to sex, gender-role expectation conditions, and gender-role views. The participants’ self-presentations were measured by the M-H-F scale with three characteristics of gender-roles related to masculinity, humanity, and femininity. The main results were as follows: (1) Female students who received non-traditional gender-role expectations presented more masculinity than did other female students who received the traditional gender-role expectations. (2) When receiving non-traditional gender-role expectations, female students exhibited masculinity more than male students. (3) Female students showed higher presentation scores than male students on all of the characteristics.
In recent years, there have been discussions on the importance of training mindfulness with ethics. In this study, we conducted a web survey of 193 adults in order to examine the moderation effect of ethics on the relationship between mindfulness and nonattachment/perspective-taking. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that when the sense of ethics was high, mindfulness was higher, as was nonattachment. On the other hand, when the sense of ethics was low, mindfulness was still higher, but nonattachment was lower. Moreover, the results showed that when the sense of ethics was low, mindfulness was higher, but perspective-taking was lower. These results suggest that mindfulness can be beneficial when it is fostered with ethics and may not have beneficial effects in the absence of ethics.
The current study investigated the effects of teacher stressors and automatic thoughts on depressive symptoms in Japanese elementary school teachers. In this study, 164 Japanese elementary school teachers completed questionnaires about teacher stressors, automatic thoughts, and depressive symptoms. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that teacher stressors positively but indirectly affected depressive symptoms via negative automatic thoughts. Furthermore, the results indicated that positive automatic thoughts negatively affected depressive symptoms. Finally, implications for future research and practice for Japanese elementary school teachers with depressive symptoms are discussed.
This study aimed to investigate whether the active voice could be distinguished from the passive voice in the Implicit Association Test (IAT). A total of 29 women took two antisocial single-category IATs (the verbs describing antisocial and prosocial behavior were presented in active voice as stimulus words in one condition and in the passive voice in another). They also answered the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The results revealed that the antisocial single-category IAT presented in the active voice exhibited a positive correlation with anger and hostility, whereas when the same words were presented in the passive voice, no significant correlation was shown with any type of aggression. These results suggest that the active voice and the passive voice are processed differently in the IAT.
This study longitudinally examined the relation between support reciprocity and mental health among college students, focusing on the early stage of friendship development. A total of 106 first-year college students (51 male and 55 female) completed measures of support exchange in a new friendship, mental health (general distress), and relationship intimacy at one week (T1), two weeks (T2), four weeks (T3), and three months (T4) after entering college. In students whose relationship with their new friend remained superficial at T4, support reciprocity was not significantly correlated with general distress at any time point. In contrast, in students whose relationship grew closer at T4, support reciprocity was significantly related to lower general distress at T3 and T4, in line with the whole sample cases.
The aim of this study was to examine the prospective associations between school maladjustment and rolefulness over a period of three years. We tested the hypothesis that rolefulness would negatively predict school maladjustment in high school students. The present study utilized data from 282 students (55% girls) who completed all assessments in three waves during these three years. Cross-lagged panel analyses indicated a significant relationship between school maladjustment and rolefulness across the waves. More specifically, these results suggest that social rolefulness mediated between lack of social competence and lack of perceived self-acceptance or sign of maladjustment.
The present study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal predictability of mental health using Sense of Coherence (SOC) through a linear regression model (LRM) and generalized additive model (GAM). The estimation using LRM and GAM showed that SOC predicted mental health in both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Moreover, the model fit index and analysis of deviance showed that the GAM fitted better with both data compared to LRM. These results suggest that SOC can be used as a predictor of the current and future states of mental health as well as the continuous and gradual changes in mental health.
Previous studies on the relationship between the Dark Triad (DT) and interpersonal relations have not investigated the kind of people individuals with high DT choose as partners. The current study used a questionnaire to examine whether individuals with high DT are likely to form relationships with people who encounter many life stressors and have low social support, people with low socioeconomic status (SES), and people with high loneliness. The results showed that individuals with high DT have more friends with low SES, but this relationship was mainly explained by the variance caused by the degree of narcissism.
Based on the main theories of motivation, Miele and Scholer (2017) provided a comprehensive taxonomy of motivational regulation strategies for different types of motivation. The present study aimed to develop a new scale for assessing motivational regulation strategies from a theoretical perspective suggested by Miele and Scholer (2017), and to examine its reliability and validity. Using exploratory factor analysis, five motivational regulation strategies were extracted. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s α. Significant relationships between academic-learning motivation, regulatory focus, self-efficacy, and different types of regulation strategies provided evidence for the construct validity.