In this study, we examined the relationship between perceived empathy and the strength of the empathized event (i.e., the extent to which the event was evaluated to be delightful). We analyzed whether the participants received empathetic responses from others applying the scene imagination method to the questionnaire. Data suggest that individuals who perceive empathized events to be more delightful feel more empathy while receiving empathetic responses. The study shows that there is a correlation between empathetic events and the context of the empathized event.
This study developed the Japanese version of the Highly Sensitive Child Scale for Childhood (HSCS-C) and tested its validity and reliability. Data were collected from 400 dyads of primary school children (third to sixth grades: Mage = 9.75 years, SD = 1.22; male = 48.5%) and their mothers (Mage = 41.00 years, SD = 5.05). Two factors were found: the first was the conjunction of Ease of Excitation and Low Sensory Threshold, and the second was Aesthetic Sensitivity. A bivariate correlation analysis indicated that children’s sensory processing sensitivity, measured with HSCS-C, was associated with self-reported empathy and mother-reported temperaments, with both forms being distinct. The internal consistency was found to be satisfactory.
Photographs of Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) were classified based on affect valence, and they have been used for the investigation of mental state decoding abilities depending on their valence. The present study aimed at classifying photographs of the Asian version of the RMET that can also be applied to the Japanese by affect valence, as in the original RMET. Japanese female university students were presented with 36 photographs of Asian RMET, and asked to evaluate the affect valence of each photograph. In the resulting classification of the photographs, 20 were negative, 5 were neutral, and 11 were positive.
Dichotomous thinking relates to the propensity to think of things in terms of binary opposition. In this study, we examined the relationship between dichotomous thinking and response style to a questionnaire using different scoring methods. The following results were obtained. There is tendency for individuals with high dichotomous thinking to rate their responses to the items in the questionnaire at an extreme of 1 or 5 on a five-point scale. In other words, an individual with strong dichotomous thinking does not merely avoid the neutral response but has an extreme response style.
This study examined the relationship between images of religious believers and tolerant attitudes toward them. A questionnaire was administered to 220 respondents via a web survey. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that images of religious believers consisted of three factors: “mentally vulnerable,” “pious,” and “virtuous.” Furthermore, hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that, regardless of whether the respondents were themselves religious or not, virtuous images were associated with tolerant attitude toward them. In contrast, the relationship between mentally vulnerable and pious images and a tolerant attitude was different, depending on respondents’ religiousness.
We investigated the effects of imagining (episodic simulation) helping behavior on helping efficacy. Participants were asked to imagine (imagine condition) and remember (remember condition) helping behavior, and make a headline (headline condition) in response to sentences describing a person in need. Then, they rated their helping efficacy and helping intention regarding the person. The results showed that helping efficacy and helping intention in the imagine and remember conditions were significantly higher than in the headline condition. Thus, it is suggested that helping efficacy is enhanced by imagining helping situations without actual behavior.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of parental bonding instrument (PBI) on over-adaptation in adolescence from the viewpoint of gender difference. The participants were 299 university students (male=125; female=174). The results showed that the level of mother’s loving on the PBI positively predicted boys’ and girls’ external aspect (EA) of over-adaptation, but negatively predicted girls’ internal aspect (IA) of over-adaptation. The level of mother’s overprotectiveness on the PBI was found to positively predict both EA and IA in adolescence. The level of father’s overprotectiveness on the PBI was positively associated with IA in boys; however, it was not significantly correlated with IA in girls.
The purpose of this study was to examine pre-service teachers’ perceived utility of autonomy support for motivation and academic performance. Undergraduates from a teacher training course (N=235) participated in the questionnaire-based study operated in a two-by-two between-subjects factorial design. The results showed that pre-service teachers perceived the autonomy support as more useful for motivation than academic performance and for elementary than junior high school children. Additionally, pre-service teachers with autonomous motivation perceived higher levels of utility of autonomy support. The congruence between empirical findings and pre-service teachers’ naive belief about motivation theory is discussed.
This study aimed to examine the effects of anhedonia and behavioral activation on game addiction. A sample of 248 game players completed a questionnaire that collected information regarding game addiction, anhedonia, and behavioral activation. The results of the causal mediation analysis showed that behavioral activation did not directly affect game addiction but, instead, had an indirect effect: anhedonia mediated the relationship between behavioral activation and game addiction. This finding suggests that behavioral activation could be one of the effective intervention strategies for compulsive game players with anhedonia.