Although previous research indicates that victimization and self-image instability relate to bullying, the causal relationships between these variables are unclear. The primary purpose of this study was to examine how self-image instability and victimization relate to bullying. Participants were 1,362 children (420 elementary school children and 942 junior high school children), who answered a self-report questionnaire three times in one year. The questionnaire measured self-image instability, bullying, and victimization. In the first questionnaire, participants were asked to report the degree of experienced bullying and victimization from April until the present. The second and third questionnaires recorded bullying and victimization between the previous self-report and the present. Longitudinal data analyses using a cross-lagged model indicated self-image instability predicted victimization, and victimization marginally predicted bullying for only junior high school children.
The purpose of this study was to examine a model in which mindful attention awareness mediates cognitive fusion and affects PTSD symptoms. We administered questionnaires measuring trauma experience, mindful attention awareness (MAAS), cognitive fusion (CFQ), and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PCL-5) to 884 university students. Covariance structure analysis of the data of 254 participants who had experienced trauma yielded an acceptable model fit. In other words, as in previous overseas studies, mindful attention awareness had a negative effect on cognitive fusion, and cognitive fusion had a positive effect on PTSD symptoms. The findings suggest that not only increased mindful attention awareness but also defusion can be important in improving PTSD symptoms. In the future, we hope to comprehensively examine various elements of mindfulness, as well as the effectiveness of intervention methods targeting them.
The present study aimed to examine the correlates of students’ motivation for forming romantic relationships, trust in their romantic partner, and intimacy among adolescents. Undergraduates (N=185) who were currently in romantic relationships completed a questionnaire. The results were as follows. (a) Exploratory factor analysis of the scale for students’ motivation for forming romantic relationships revealed 4 factors: “intrinsic regulation,” “identified regulation,” “internalized regulation,” and “external regulation.” (b) The scale for students’ trust in their romantic partner revealed 4 factors: “evaluation of role accomplishment,” “sense of security,” “distrust,” and “difficulty.” (c) A high level of intrinsic regulation was related to a high level of sense of security and a high level of intimacy. (d) The correlations differed according to the students’ gender.
The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between inter-peer group status in “school caste,” school adjustment, implicit/explicit self-esteem, and assumed-competence among middle and high school students. The difference between their educational stages was also explored. Four hundred and eight Japanese middle and high school students completed self-report questionnaires online. The results revealed that in both educational stages, inter-peer group status was associated with school adjustment, and intra-group status was associated with explicit self-esteem, but no significant relationships were found between inter-group/intra-group status and implicit self-esteem or assumed-competence. Furthermore, no difference was found between educational stages in this study, although there was a unique relationship between the inter-group status and explicit self-esteem in high school students. Finally, the relationships between “school caste” and psychological adjustments in students, and the indications regarding this were also discussed.
This study investigated intraindividual change in affect in middle and old aged persons, using 6-year longitudinal data from a survey of individuals aged 50 to 76 years (N=3,107 at Wave 1) starting from 2007. Positive affect declined over time across age groups, whereas age differences were found for trajectories of negative affect. Negative affect showed an inverse U-shaped trend in middle age and remained stable in old age. Further, following a bottom-up framework, we examined whether contextual factors (gender, education, work status, marriage, and self-rated health) explained interindividual differences in intraindividual changes in affect. Positive affect decreased even after controlling for the correlates, while they partially accounted for changes in negative affect in old age. In particular, deterioration of affect in midlife was incongruent with existing literature. I discussed the possible mechanisms for trajectories of affect.
The purpose of this study is to develop the General Group Identification Tendency (GGIT) scale that measures individual tendency to identify with ingroups regardless of the type of group and examine its reliability and validity. Results of questionnaire surveys that were conducted with university students showed sufficient internal consistency and validity, which was estimated in terms of the relationship with contextualism, degree of identification with the university, collective self-esteem, and allocentric tendency. These results indicated that the GGIT scale is valid.
This study aimed to investigate differences in the common factor of community consciousness between Japan and Korea. The scale included four subscales: “solidarity,” “self-determination,” “attachment,” and “dependency on others.” Web surveys were conducted in 669 adults (330 Japanese, 339 Koreans). Results of the survey showed that configural invariance was confirmed only for “self-determination” and its latent mean was higher in Korean participants. In sum, the results suggest that Japan and Korea have similarities and differences regarding community consciousness, which may be attributed to various factors such as social mobility and attitudes toward civil rights.
Previous research has suggested that chronic thought suppression exacerbates rumination. We examined the moderating effect of depression on the relationship between thought suppression and rumination, and found that chronic thought suppression predicted brooding, which is a maladaptive rumination style. Moreover, the level of depression moderated this relationship, such that the severer the depression, the stronger was the association between chronic thought suppression and brooding. In contrast, depression did not moderate the association between chronic thought suppression and reflection, which is a less maladaptive rumination style. Future directions for research on the relationship between thought suppression and rumination are discussed.
This study investigated the relationship between the evaluating usefulness strategies for a specific subject and the usefulness value for another subject. University students (n=76) participated in a questionnaire survey. The results showed that when participants evaluated usefulness of the knowledge gained from an educational psychology class, they felt not only the utility value of educational psychology but also of the near subject which was similar to educational psychology. On the other hand, participants did not feel the utility value of a subject which was distantly related to educational psychology. This study implied that the evaluating usefulness strategies of a specific subject transfers to another closely related subject.
This study examined stay-or-leave decisions in Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) relationships by gender based on the investment model. Using the comprehensive IPV scale to measure victim experiences, we analyzed 202 men and 265 women who had been victimized at least once. Results showed that psychological abuse increased investment and, subsequently, commitment but reduced the likelihood of leave decisions in women, similar to findings of previous studies. The result was the opposite in men, however. Furthermore, physical abuse increased relationship satisfaction and investment, while sexual abuse reduced the likelihood of leave decisions in men. Hence, gender differences were revealed in how IPV victimization influences stay-or-leave decisions.
The present study aimed to examine the reliability and construct validity of the “Leipzig Short Scale of Sense of Coherence” (SOC-L9) in a Japanese sample, using item analysis based on the Rasch measurement model, confirmatory factor analysis, and longitudinal correlation analysis. According to the item fit statistics, nine items and the total score were confirmed to fit the model assuming the one latent factor. Furthermore, the SOC-L9 scores significantly correlated with the original 29-item version of the SOC-L9. The factor analysis showed that, similar to the previous study, the same model which assumed covariance between errors of some items, was suitable. These results indicate that SOC-L9 had high reliability and validity.