Despite public concern regarding mobile device use and children's self-regulation, there is little evidence on this topic in the literature. This study investigated whether smartphone and tablet use was associated with effortful control (EC) in early childhood. In Study 1 (N=183; individuals with a firstborn aged 2–6 years), the Smartphone and Tablet Use Purpose Scale, the Smartphone and Tablet Use Situation Scale, and the Smartphone and Tablet Use Rule Scale were developed and validated. In Study 2 (N=455; married couples with a firstborn aged 2–6 years), the common fate model showed that smartphone and tablet use rule, but not smartphone and tablet use frequency, smartphone and tablet use purpose, and smartphone and tablet use situation, was associated with higher EC, even after controlling for demographic variables. This was true for subgroup analysis based on the child's age.
The offensive subtype of Taijin Kyofusho (offensive TKS) involves the fear of offending others. While offensive TKS and social anxiety disorder (SAD) present similar pathology, the former is notably different from SAD in that the fear is other-oriented. However, few studies have investigated the individual differences that predict the symptoms unique to offensive TKS and SAD. The present study examined the behavioral inhibition/activation systems (BIS/BAS) and over-adaptation tendency as potential predictive factors using a questionnaire-based survey. In all, 274 undergraduates completed questionnaires measuring TKS tendency, social anxiety tendency, BIS/BAS, over-adaptation tendency, and depressive tendency. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the BIS/BAS was a unique predictor of SAD, whereas over-adaptation tendency was a unique predictor of offensive TKS. Therefore, the results suggest that offensive TKS and SAD have different psychological mechanisms.
Age-related changes in affect have been described in developmental sciences, and the majority of these studies have focused on long-term intraindividual changes over years. However, evidence on short-term intraindividual variations over days remains limited. Using a daily diary method, we examined age differences in intraindividual variability in emotions in 19 young (19–29 years) and 21 older (82–84 years) adults. The participants rated the extent to which daily positive affect and negative affect were experienced each evening for seven days. Intraindividual variability in affect was quantified by three measures: variability (intraindividual standard deviation), inertia (autocorrelation), and instability (mean square successive difference). For the measures of variability and instability, older adults exhibited lower levels of intraindividual variability in affect compared with young adults. More inert positive emotions were associated with higher mean levels of negative emotions only in older adults. Future research should examine the mechanisms underlying age differences in emotional variability.
Approach commitment has a buffer effect on the detrimental effects of avoidance commitment. In this study, we examined whether this buffer effect occurs in both long-distance dating relationships (LDDR) and geographically proximal dating relationships (GCDR). There were 46 participants who were in LDDR and 112 who were in GCDR. Result revealed no difference in the buffer effect on relationship satisfaction between LDDR and GCDR. In contrast, the buffer effect on relationship constraint was different between LDDR and GCDR, and it did not occur in LDDR. These results suggested the process that maintains relationship quality was different between LDDR and GCDR.
This study examined the effect of personality similarities on interpersonal attraction, focusing on the characteristic personality traits of persons evaluated by study participants. A total of 373 university students evaluated the attractiveness of four “stimulus persons,” described as scoring highly on each of the Big Five traits. For high-extraversion and high-agreeableness stimulus persons, the greater their similarity in characteristic personality traits to the evaluating participant, the higher the interpersonal attraction was rated. These results suggest that similarities in characteristic personality traits play an important role in the similarity effect in personality.
This study examined the relationships between self-evaluated possession of character strengths and disaster preparedness actions from the viewpoint of positive psychology’s character strengths research. An internet survey of 500 adults between the ages of 20 and 69 was conducted, and the relationships between the subjective possession of 24 character strengths and the degree of implementation of disaster preparedness actions (including individual, household, and community actions) were analyzed. The results showed positive correlation coefficients between all character strengths and disaster preparedness actions. In particular, the character strength of leadership was strongly related to disaster preparedness actions. The reproducibility of these findings should be examined in future studies.
This paper proposes that self-deprecating presentations displaying a lack of ability and low performance are intended to obtain others’ positive evaluations. Although previous research has suggested that people fearing negative evaluations actively engage in self-deprecating presentations, the reasons for this have not been clarified. The considerations in this study were as follows. It was assumed that others’ positive evaluations carry the risk of over expectation, which could lead to the fear of negative evaluations for not meeting these expectations. Therefore, people make self-deprecating presentations to avoid eventual negative evaluations.
The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure the self-image instability of early adolescents. The subjects were 937 students (272 fifth and sixth graders and 665 junior high school students) who responded to a self-report questionnaire twice, one month apart. Factor analysis revealed that the self-image instability scale includes three subscales: positive changes, negative changes, and neutral instabilities. The scale demonstrated good correlations with test–retest and existing scales. Negative self-image changes and neutral instabilities had positive correlation with stress responses, while positive changes had small negative correlations with stress responses.