The current study investigated the effects of teacher stressors and automatic thoughts on depressive symptoms in Japanese elementary school teachers. In this study, 164 Japanese elementary school teachers completed questionnaires about teacher stressors, automatic thoughts, and depressive symptoms. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that teacher stressors positively but indirectly affected depressive symptoms via negative automatic thoughts. Furthermore, the results indicated that positive automatic thoughts negatively affected depressive symptoms. Finally, implications for future research and practice for Japanese elementary school teachers with depressive symptoms are discussed.
This study longitudinally examined the relation between support reciprocity and mental health among college students, focusing on the early stage of friendship development. A total of 106 first-year college students (51 male and 55 female) completed measures of support exchange in a new friendship, mental health (general distress), and relationship intimacy at one week (T1), two weeks (T2), four weeks (T3), and three months (T4) after entering college. In students whose relationship with their new friend remained superficial at T4, support reciprocity was not significantly correlated with general distress at any time point. In contrast, in students whose relationship grew closer at T4, support reciprocity was significantly related to lower general distress at T3 and T4, in line with the whole sample cases.
The purpose of the present research was to examine the relationship between Dark Triad (Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy) and manipulation strategies (Terashima & Kodama, 2004). Participants were 210 Japanese undergraduates who completed the Short Dark Triad (SD3-J) and the scale of manipulation strategies. Structural equation modeling showed that Machiavellianism and Psychopathy were positively affected by manipulating others from both superior and inferior positions, as well as by manipulation of feelings. Narcissism had a positive effect on the manipulation of feelings from a superior position. The results indicate that there is evidence of the validity of the SD3-J and people who have high Dark Triad tendencies tend to use not only the manipulation of behavior from the superior position, but also the manipulation of feelings from the inferior position.
This study aimed to investigate whether the active voice could be distinguished from the passive voice in the Implicit Association Test (IAT). A total of 29 women took two antisocial single-category IATs (the verbs describing antisocial and prosocial behavior were presented in active voice as stimulus words in one condition and in the passive voice in another). They also answered the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The results revealed that the antisocial single-category IAT presented in the active voice exhibited a positive correlation with anger and hostility, whereas when the same words were presented in the passive voice, no significant correlation was shown with any type of aggression. These results suggest that the active voice and the passive voice are processed differently in the IAT.
Individuals with high autistic traits experience elevated levels of social anxiety. The present study investigates the characteristics of social anxiety among adolescents with high autistic traits. University students (N=395) completed questionnaires seeking to determine autistic traits (Autism-Spectrum Quotient; AQ), social anxiety, self-esteem, and public self-consciousness. Results indicated that highly autistic students (AQ≧33, N=32) are more socially anxious than are those in the control group and differ in that they are most socially anxious about “fitting among peers.” Autistic traits significantly moderated the relationship between public self-consciousness and the social anxiety of “fitting among peers,” such that there was no significant relationship among the highly autistic students. However, even among highly autistic students, increased public self-consciousness influences social anxiety in terms of “worrying about others and oneself,” “being embarrassed in social situations,” and “feeling uneasy about eye contact,” while reduced self-esteem influences overall social anxiety. Low self-esteem mediated the relationship between autistic traits and social anxiety, but the direct effect remained.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Highly Sensitive Child Scale for Adolescence (HSCS-A) and examine its validity and reliability. The original scale was developed to measure individual sensory processing sensitivity from childhood to adolescence, employing the framework of Differential Susceptibility Theory. The participants of this study were 942 Japanese students (in 7th to 10th grades); of these, 44% were female and 56% were male students. The exploratory factor analysis suggested the three-factor structure of the HSCS-A with Ease of Excitation (EOE), Aesthetic Sensitivity (AES), and Low Sensitivity Threshold (LST) fits better with a bifactor model, including an orthogonal general sensitivity factor, than a three-factor model. Construct validity was tested in reference to personality and affectivity, with the results suggesting its discriminant validity; further analysis also confirmed sufficient internal consistency. Overall results suggested that the HSCS-A is a valid scale for measuring adolescent sensitivity.