(Background) The natural history of asymptomatic isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the leg is unclear. This study aimed to describe a 3-month and 1-year clinical course after diagnosis of asymptomatic isolated distal DVT of the leg.
(Methods) This study included 127 patients with asymptomatic, sonographically proven isolated distal DVT who did not receive anticoagulant therapy and were retrospectively evaluated at our hospital between May 2014 and September 2016. After 3 months and 1 year, the presence or absence of venous thromboembolism recurrence and extension of DVT toward proximal veins was sonographically confirmed.
(Results) At 3-month and 1-year follow-ups, 125 and 109 patients were observed, respectively. All patients showed no symptoms or findings suspecting venous thromboembolism recurrence during the observation period. However, 43 patients underwent repeat ultrasonic examination, and thrombus extension was confirmed in 2 patients.
(Conclusions) Asymptomatic isolated distal DVT of the leg showed good prognosis, and thus uniform anticoagulation therapy was considered unnecessary.
Objective: Standard of an intensive drainage treatment in compression therapy for lymphedema is the use of bandages. However, bandaging is difficult for patients to get the desired interface pressure level. Few studies have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness on elastic stockings in the intensive drainage treatment. The previous study by joint with our clinic, aimed at the effectiveness of the treatment with elastic stockings, showed efficacy in both reduction in edema volume, and difference in circumference between affected and unaffected leg (edema rate). This study aimed to assess on the effectiveness, described above, of the elastic stockings from the perspective of the interface pressure measured in the previous study. Subjects and Method: Twenty legs of 20 patients affected by secondary lower limb lymphedema were targeted in the study. The patients visited hospital four times at weekly intervals. At the visit, elastic stockings were renewed based on the circumference of the leg measured after massaging and the severity of lymphatic dysfunction. A flat-knitted stocking was applied, and if needed higher compression, a round-knitted stocking was superimposed on flat-knitted one. After application, interface pressure was measured at four sites on the leg. The effectiveness was assessed from the stability and reproducibility of interface pressures measuered when wearing stockings (pressure levels, pressure gradient distribution profiles, and increase in interface pressure of two superimposed stockings). Results: As for the effectiveness of the treatment with elastic stockings, the previous study showed that compression reduced edema volume significantly from 6402 to 6025 mL (median, P<0.001) after one week. The degree of improvement in edema rate was in inverse proportion to the severity of lymphatic dysfunction. At the first visit, interface pressure (median) at site A (dorsum), site B (ankle), site C (calf), site F (thigh) was 43.6, 49.4, 48.4, 27.7 mmHg respectively. Interface pressure profiles normalized were the same at all four times to visit. An increase in the interface pressure of two superimposed stockings compared to the pressure of the first stocking was 1.2–1.7 times. A numerical model to predict interface pressure using a Generalized Linear Mixed Modeling was made with pressure measured at B as a response variable, circumference of the ankle as a covariate, and the severity of lymphatic dysfunction as a factor. The correlation between interface pressure measured and the pressure predicted showed highly significant (R=0.9881, P<0.001). Conclusion: Even though confirmatory studies are needed, this study demonstrated that interface pressures sustained stable regardless of the sites on the leg, of the number of visits, and of with or without two superimposed stockings, leaded to the effectiveness of compression therapy with elastic stockings. The numerical model suggested that it would be possible to standardize for elastic stocking having optimal compression pressure for individual patients.
The left brachiocephalic vein (LBV) is one of preference sites of central vein stenosis and compression with the sternum and the aortic arch is considered as one of the causes of the stenosis. The LBV has surrounding structures similar to the left common iliac vein, which is known as iliac vein compression syndrome. There are few anatomical studies on structures around the LBV. First, we examined 30 cases (mean age 63.9 years old) using thoracic contrast CT. However, there were a lot of variance in the number of cases by age, the distance between the brachiocephalic artery and the anterior bone was measured for 31 cases, and the change due to age was examined. The LBV often contacted with the brachiocephalic artery and the left common carotid artery. The distance between the LBV and the brachiocephalic artery, lesser diameter and cross sectional area of the LBV were significantly smaller in over 65 years old (p<0.05–0.01). In addition, the distance between the brachiocephalic artery and the anterior bone was negatively correlated with age (p<0.03). The distance between the sternum and backside artery sandwiching the LBV could shorten along age resulting of stenosis of the LBV. It was suggested that for dialysis patients, the LBV was one of the preference sites for stenosis due to compression by the surroundings tissues, and that shunt efficiency would decrease by aging.
Objective: Venous thrombus is occasionally encountered in patients with malignant tumors. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and malignant tumors.
Subjects and Methods: Of 243 patients with DVT examined between January 2012 and December 2016, 59 (24.4%) were diagnosed with malignant tumors. We compared D dimer and fibrin degradation product (FDP) levels, the location of DVT and the clinical stage of malignancy between non-survivor group (N=19) and survivor group (N=40).
Results: Totally, 26 males and 33 females were included and their mean age was 69.9±5.6 years. D dimer and FDP levels were significantly higher in non-survivor group than in survivor group (P<0.01). With regard to the location of DVT, the proximal type was significantly more common in non-survivor group (P<0.001). A more advanced stage was also significantly in the non-survivor group (P<0.001).
Conclusion: D dimer and FDP levels, location of DVT and clinical stage of malignancy are important factors for the prognosis of patients with DVT malignant tumors.
In Japan, the Multi-Layered Inelastic Lymphedema Bandage (MLLB) is recommended for Phase1 Lymphedema treatment. However, MLLB has high elongation stiffness, but compression pressure tends to decrease with the passage of time. In our clinic, Phase1 treats outpatient clinic using wavy type urethane garment and Flat-knit Elastic Stocking (FES) instead of bandage. The FES has higher elongation stiffness than compared to Round-knit Elastic Stocking (RES), and since it is a stocking, the pressure is stable. Because the elongation stiffness is high, a specialized auxiliary tool is required to put on and take off the stocking.
However, if the stocking is put on the correctly, high drainage can be expected. In cases where we can treat with FES, normal clothes and shoes can be worn as usual, with little impact on dairy life.
There are many reports of ovarian varicose vein most of which are due to Nutcracker syndrome. However, primary internal iliac varicose vein is an extremely rare vascular abnormality in men. We report a case of primary internal iliac varicose vein in a 70-year-old man. The varicose vein was detected during the examination for sigmoid colon cancer. He noticed melena in September 2017 and colonoscopy was done at a clinic. It revealed type 2 sigmoid colon cancer, however, there was no teleangiectasia or varices in the colon. He was referred to our hospital.
The patient had no relevant medical or family history and no history of trauma or intense athletic activity. He did not complain of pain or tenderness in the hypogastric and inguinal areas, and there were no palpable mass. Hematologic examinations yielded no significant findings except for slight anemia. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed a dilated tortuous vascular structure of bilateral internal iliac vein and dilated inferior mesenteric vein. However, there was no stenosis of portal vein and metastatic liver tumor. Our patient did not have splenomegaly, esophagocardial varices, or any other collateral vessel such as a spontaneous splenorenal shunt, all of which are ordinary responses to portal hypertension. It remains unclear whether internal iliac varicose veins are congenital or acquired. We speculate that our patient might have had an underlying anomaly.
Laparoscopic sigmoidectomy was done and postoperative course was uneventful. The dilated inferior mesenteric vein was ligated at the proximal side. He discharged 10 days after the surgery. Histological analysis of the dissected inferior mesenteric vein revealed no remarkable findings. The patient was healthy and symptom free when last seen at his sixth month follow up. Contrast-enhanced CT six months after the operation revealed shrinkage of the residual varicose vein. However, careful follow up is recommended.
This case involved a 41-year-old female who experienced pain in the right lower leg for a few days, Although swelling and reddening were observed, no treatment was sought because her condition improved. However, she visited our hospital after becoming aware of similar symptoms in the left lower limb two days ago. Vascular echocardiography revealed thrombus filling the bilateral great saphenous veins, and thrombus was found in the branches of both pulmonary arteries on contrast CT. A lot of thrombus was observed in the saphenous vein extending into both femoral veins. Surgery was performed by incising the large saphenous vein at a high level and removing the thrombus, followed by high ligation. The operative course was good. In this case, the thrombus arising in the main great saphenous vein and progressing to the femoral vein was diagnosed as ascending thrombophlebitis, which can cause deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, As this condition is sometimes fatal, caution is necessary.