In semiconductor materials for printed electronics, not only high mobility but also solution processability are required. Liquid crystalline organic semiconductors have high solubility for organic solvent and controllability of molecular ori entation of films. In addition, it is easy to fabricate crystalline thin films with uniform and flat surface morphology by using uniform liquid crystalline films as their precursor. Furthermore, the liquid crystalline derivatives suitable for organic transistors are developed by molecular design for highly ordered liquid crystal phase such as smectic E (SmE) phase. In fact, Phenyl-Benzothienobenzothiophene derivative (Ph-BTBT-10) designed for the SmE phase has good thermal durability up to 200 °C, while keeping high solubility. In addition to this, Ph-BTBT-10 having monoalkyl chain can form the bilayer crystal structure, which cannot be achieved with dialkyl derivatives and often increase mobility. Therefore, liquid crystalline organic semiconductors are recognized as a potential candidate for semiconductor materials for printed electronics.
Photosensitive surface modifier of silane coupling agents bearing carboxylic acid and amine protected by 2-nitrobenzyl group at the terminal was developed. Self-assembled monolayers were fabricated using these modifiers on the surface of silicon wafer and glass substrates followed by near UV irradiation with photomask to successfully obtain a patterning with a line width of 10 μm. The patterning was confirmed by staining with silver nanoparticulate and fluorescence agent. Development of photosensitive phosphonic acid derivatives as a novel surface modifying agent is also reported.
Tokyo Polytechnic University is the most traditional and longest-established photographic institution in our country since 1923. Among other university establishments, Shadai Gallery was opened in 1975 as Japan's pioneer facility that exhibits, collects and researches both domestic and international photographs. Shadai Gallery has two missions, one is to preserve those collections among original prints, the other is to use them for photography education. To make the two objectives compatible, the Gallery has ordered Nissha Printing Communications, inc to construct a digital archive in 2003. This paper describes the processes of reproduction of photographs by high-definition digital photography, development of a collection management system, and utilization of the image browsing system at the educational site.
The National Archives of Modern Architecture（NAMA）digitizes its holdings for preservation and access. This report sets out the challenges such as data specifications and long term preservation that NAMA faces with. It also in troduces AtoM, a database system that NAMA is considering whether to adopt and Archivematica that enables digital preservation compliant with the OAIS Reference Model.
Photography, as a means for recording visual information of cultural heritage, was introduced to Japan from the beginning of Meiji era and many images had been reserved by Japanese government sections and museums. Nowadays various photographic resources such as original plates, prints, photo-mounts, albums, cameras, and viewing devices are stored in Tokyo National Museum that tell not only information on heritage but also a process of taking and managing photos in the past. Further research and utilization of these resources are strongly expected because recent development of digital technology has been revealing rich visual information contained in early original plates.
This article deals with the explanation of basic methodology for color management with reference to the historical background. In addition, discussion on the color space selected for digital archiving and constraints on color reproduc tion of commercially available digital cameras used as input devices were mentioned.
Potassium-doped organometal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) of more than 20% power conversion efficiency (PCE) without I-V hysteresis were constructed. The crystal lattice of the organometal halide perovskite was expanded with increasing of the potassium cation (K＋) ratio, where both absorption and photoluminescence spectra shifted to the longer wavelength, suggesting that the optical band gap was decreased. In the case of the perovskite with the 5% K＋, the conduction band minimum (CBM) became shallower to the CBM level of the Li-treated TiO2. Furthermore, intermediate grain boundaries in film was practically vanished by incorporated K ＋. In these situation, the electron transfer barrier at the interface between Li-treated TiO2 and the perovskite and by physical gap of grain boundary were minimized. It is concluded that stagnation-less carrier transportation could minimize the I-V hysteresis of PSCs.
Current medical care is supported by image diagnosis by PACS. Although its beginning is in the finding of X-rays, in order to establish it as a diagnostic imaging method, it was necessary to solve the X-ray scattering problem by the human body. The next tasks were high sensitivity for reduction of exposure dose, rapid processing for immediacy, high image quality for improving diagnostic performance, but they were solved with screen and film improvements. Digitization is on an extension of these tasks, resulting in image acquisition by CR and DR and image display by dry imager and by flat-panel display.