The chromosomes of early embryonic cells of the small free-living nematode, C. elegans var. Bristol (N2) hermaphrodite, were observed by conventional Giemsa and G-band staining by the air-drying technique. Twelve diploid chromosomes were observed in the somatic cells and they were classified into six homologous pairs by G-band staining. In the first meiotic cells six tetrads were observed in pachytene and metaphase stages.
Intervening C-band positive-G-band negative regions were observed just adjacent to the secondary constrictions on the largest acrocentric chromosome pair of Odonus niger and Meliehthys vidua, which intensely indicate the occurrence of tandem translocation event. Since the karyotypes of the five balistid fish studied comprised solely acrocentrics, the karyotypic changes by the tandem translocation could be used to precisely analyse their phyletic genetic evolution.