A method for the measurement of thermal diffusivity at high pressures and high temperatures has been developed using a 6-8 type multi-anvil apparatus. A new assembly, whose pressure medium has a 25mm edge length, can generate pressures exceeding 10GPa and temperatures up to 1900K. Test measurements carried out for fused silica at nearly atmospheric pressure give results in good agreement with literature values. Measurements made at high pressures, up to 9GPa, yield a negative first pressure derivative but a positive second pressure derivative.
ε-Caprolactone was epitaxially polymerized on the basal plane of graphite by the conventional ring-opening reaction. An ultra-thin polymer film remained upon washing the bulk polymer away as confirmed by Infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Direct observation by scanning tunneling microscopy revealed the chain packing of poly(ε-caprolactone) as well as its epitaxial orientation in atomic detail.
The characteristics of Ca2+ activated K+ channels of enzymatically dissociated single smooth muscle cells of vas deferens of the adult guinea pig were studied by the whole cell clamp technique. A stepwise depolarization to -30mV induced a fast transient current followed by the spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs). STOCs were eliminated by application of K+ channel blocker TEA. STOCs appeared only when Ca2+ was present in extracellular medium, and disappeared immediately once Ca2+ was removed from the medium. Therefore, STOCs in the present preparation can be ascribed to the activity of Ca2+ activated K+ channels. Furthermore, even in the absence of Ca2+, STOCs were evoked transiently by application of caffeine, indicating the involvement of the Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release (CICR) mechanism. Thus, it is likely that Ca2+ activated K+ channels are operated via CICR mechanism and extracellular Ca2+ is essential for keeping their constant activity.