Fullerite C60 powders (with a small amount of fullerite C70) in copper matrix are subjected to shock loadings in the pressure-temperature range of 12 to 37GPa and 1100 to 2400K, and are investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Diamond is recovered in specimens quenched above 20GPa, and the typical grain size ranges 5 to 25nm. The C60 and C70 fullerites remain stable under shock conditions up to 19GPa. The high reactivity of C60 crystals is shown by formation of carbide, which indicates reaction with steel containers. Graphitic carbon and amorphous solid are detected as well.
The rate of enlargement of pea stem segments was calculated with four parameters obtained by a stress-relaxation analysis of the cell wall and compared it with that observed under a certain experimental condition. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) stem segments were incubated in 0.4M mannitol for 120min at 0°C, then transferred to buffer at 0°C in order to create an in vivo turgor pressure. The observed enlargement was slower than the calculated processes, since mannitol in the segment apoplast diffused out gradually. If the gradual increase in turgor pressure due to diffusion of mannitol was introduced to the computation, the calculated enlargement process fits well the observed one. It is concluded that segment enlargement was physically described by the mechanical property of the cell wall, the osmotic potential and solute movement in the apoplast.
Amino acid sequences of 90 different cadherin repeats were aligned for six highly conserved segments, and the frequency of occurrence of amino acids at each amino acid position was calculated. Using the frequency of occurrence, further members of the cadherin superfamily were searched in protein database by a method developed previously. It was found that ret proto-oncogene product, a receptor type protein tyrosine kinase, contains cadherin repeats in the extracellular region.
The localization of major gangliosides in adult rat cerebellum was investigated by immunofluorescence technique with mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Five MAbs (GMB16, GMR17, GGR12, GMR5, and GMR13) that specifically recognize gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b, respectively, were used. Our studies have revealed that the expression of the ganglioside is highly localized to a specific cell-type and layer in the rat cerebellum. GM1 was expressed in myelin and some glial cells. GD1a was detected exclusively in the molecular layer. GD1b and GQ1b were present restrictedly on the granular layer; GD1b was detected on the surface of the granular cell bodies, whereas GQ1b was present in the cerebellar glomerulus. GT1b was distributed intensely in both the molecular layer and the granular layer.