We found that the time profile of the land air temperature anomalies followed the time profile of the magnetic field variation with remarkable similarity and delay time of about 200 years for both cases of the instrumentally measured temperature data and the data reconstructed from tree ring growth rates of the northern north American continent and the polar Ural mountains of northern Siberia. If this is indeed the case, (i) the present global warming will turn to global cooling in near future. If we assume that the land air temperature anomalies can be a good proxy of the solar total irradiance variation, the present result means that (ii) the present global warming of the Earth is a result of release of heat which has been stored in the solar convection zone in the Maunder Minimum in the 17th century.
Based on the data of the precisely determined REE abundances and the isotopic composition of Nd in two seawater columns from the western North Pacific Ocean, it is shown that the extent of the lanthanide tetrad effect combined with the Nd isotopic composition is a new useful tool to characterize the water masses of seawater and to investigate their movement and origin. The depth variation of lanthanide tetrad effect in a column appears to be related with the temperature and the content of dissolved oxygen. Of course, the areal features are observed evidently.
The temperature estimation using garnet (Grt)-clinopyroxene (Cpx) Fe-Mg exchange geothermometers was carried out for an ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogite complex in the Su-Lu terrain, eastern China. The obtained temperatures (from 600 to 900°C at 30kbar) and KD (=(Fe/Mg)Grt/(Fe/Mg)Cpx=8-13) show a wide variation and they are clearly dependent upon the jadeite-content (Xjd) of Cpx. It mainly owes to a positive correlation between fe#(=Fe2+/(Fe2++Mg)) and Xjd in Cpx. Such a phenomenon was known for Cpx with Xjd higher than 0.7 in the quartz-eclogite facies rocks, but it is more clearly recognized from omphacite to jadeite in the coesite-bearing UHP eclogite. We may need a new correction factor on Xjd to estimate the equilibrated T of UHP rocks.
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is an autosomal recessive neurovisceral lipid storage disorder biochemically characterized by a defect in intracellular transport of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol from the lysosome to other cellular sites. We have found substantial accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in NP-C fibroblasts. The intracellular distribution of GM2 ganglioside was similar to that of cholesterol detected by filipin staining, indicating that the accumulation of GM2 ganglioside is mainly lysosomal. The incorporation of N-acetyl-D-[3H]mannosamine into gangliosides was also increased in NP-C fibroblasts, especially into the GM2 and GM3 fractions. A culture condition which eliminates cholesterol accumulation does not eliminate GM2 accumulation. It is suggested that the accumulation of GM2 ganglioside together with the accumulation of cholesterol is a unique abnormality in NP-C fibroblasts and that the defect in NP-C may involve intracellular transport of both cholesterol and GM2 ganglioside.
It has been experimentally verified that melatonin has various biological functions of much interest, but the today's trend harboring an idea that melatonin is likely to be a cure-all is extreme by any stretch of the imagination. What should be now sought will be to take a short rest from experiments and to arrange a huge number of experimental data so far obtained as well as to judge calmly the real state of things. I have had a very happy experience in extending melatonin study from so-called classic to modern parts of it. But the problem of it, which all the time had something been on my mind was that no theoretical linkage was likely to be gained between a classic part of the experiment, that is, more lightening of amphibian skin colors and a modern part, that is, its influence on mammalian lipids or immune systems. An idea occurred to me, as far as my research results are concerned, that the major part of such a linkage between both can be put in order by understanding that the feature of melatonin is a direct or an indirect functions of the anti-ACTH . glucocorticoid system. And probably, this way of thinking helps arrange many other results of melatonin research.