The Aharonov-Bohm effect was conclusively established by a series of our electron interference experiments, with the help of some advanced techniques, such as coherent field-emission electron beams and microlithography. Using this fundamental principle behind the interaction of an electron wave with electromagnetic fields, new observation techniques were developed to directly observe microscopic objects and quantum phenomena previously unobservable.
Short history of Kawasaki disease, clinical features (principal symptoms and other significant symptoms or findings), diagnosis, cardiovascular involvement, epidemiology. Pathological features (lesion of vessels and lesion of organs exclusive of vessels), comparison between infantile periarteritis nodosa (IPN)/Kawasaki disease and classic periarteritis nodosa (CPN), etiology, treatment and management of Kawasaki disease are described.
Asymmetric catalysis is a powerful component of modern synthetic organic chemistry. To further broaden the scope and utility of asymmetric catalysis, new basic concepts for the design of asymmetric catalysts are crucial. Because most chemical reactions involve bond-formation between two substrates or moieties, high enantioselectivity and catalyst activity should be realized if an asymmetric catalyst can activate two reacting substrates simultaneously at defined positions. Thus, we proposed the concept of bifunctional asymmetric catalysis, which led us to the design of new asymmetric catalysts containing two functionalities (e.g. a Lewis acid and a Brønsted base or a Lewis acid and a Lewis base). These catalysts demonstrated broad reaction applicability with excellent substrate generality. Using our catalytic asymmetric reactions as keys steps, efficient total syntheses of pharmaceuticals and their biologically active lead natural products were achieved.
During the period October 2005 - January 2006, five strong earthquakes occurred in Greece as follows: three magnitude 6.0 consecutive earthquakes with almost the same epicenter in the Aegean Sea close to the western coast of Turkey, one magnitude 6.1 in western Greece and one magnitude 6.9 in southern Greece. In March 2005 and September 2005, intense anomalous geoelectric changes were observed at two different stations respectively: one in the Aegean Sea and the other in western Greece. These changes were immediately reported to international journals well in advance of earthquake occurrences. Natural time analysis of seismicity subsequent to the September changes around the epicenter of the last 6.9 earthquake is made. The results indicate that the occurrence time of the 6.9 earthquake can be specified with a narrow range around two days.