The author reviews contribution of Gakushuin University group to the progress of the quantum transport in semiconductor two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) for forty years from the birth of the 2DES in middle of the 1960s till the finding of temperature dependent collapse of the quantized Hall resistance in the beginning of this century.
This review article deals with a new element ‘nipponium’ reported by Masataka Ogawa in 1908, and with its scientific and science historical background. Ogawa positioned nipponium between molybdenum and ruthenium in the periodic table. From a modern chemical viewpoint, however, nipponium is ascribable to the element with Z=75, namely rhenium, which was unknown in 1908. The reasons for this corrected assignment of nipponium are (1) its optical spectra, (2) its atomic weight when corrected, (3) its relative abundance in molybdenite, the same being true with rhenium. Recently some important evidence was found among the Ogawa’s personal collection preserved by his family. Deciphering the X-ray spectra revealed that the measured spectra of the nipponium sample that Ogawa brought from University College, London clearly showed the presence of the element 75 (rhenium). Thus was resolved the mysterious story of nipponium, which had continued for almost a century. It is concluded that nipponium was identical to rhenium.
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the following reversible reaction: Glycine + H4folate + NAD+⇄5,10-methylene-H4folate + CO2 + NH3 + NADH + H+ The glycine cleavage system is widely distributed in animals, plants and bacteria and consists of three intrinsic and one common components: those are i) P-protein, a pyridoxal phosphate-containing protein, ii) T-protein, a protein required for the tetrahydrofolate-dependent reaction, iii) H-protein, a protein that carries the aminomethyl intermediate and then hydrogen through the prosthetic lipoyl moiety, and iv) L-protein, a common lipoamide dehydrogenase. In animals and plants, the proteins form an enzyme complex loosely associating with the mitochondrial inner membrane. In the enzymatic reaction, H-protein converts P-protein, which is by itself a potential α–amino acid decarboxylase, to an active enzyme, and also forms a complex with T-protein. In both glycine cleavage and synthesis, aminomethyl moiety bound to lipoic acid of H-protein represents the intermediate that is degraded to or can be formed from N5,N10-methylene-H4folate and ammonia by the action of T-protein. N5,N10-Methylene-H4folate is used for the biosynthesis of various cellular substances such as purines, thymidylate and methionine that is the major methyl group donor through S-adenosyl-methionine. This accounts for the physiological importance of the glycine cleavage system as the most prominent pathway in serine and glycine catabolism in various vertebrates including humans. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia, a congenital metabolic disorder in human infants, results from defective glycine cleavage activity. The majority of patients with nonketotic hyperglycinemia had lesions in the P-protein gene, whereas some had mutant T-protein genes. The only patient classified into the degenerative type of nonketotic hyperglycinemia had an H-protein devoid of the prosthetic lipoyl residue. The crystallography of normal T-protein as well as biochemical characterization of recombinants of the normal and mutant T-proteins confirmed why the mutant T-proteins had lost enzyme activity. Putative mechanisms of cellular injuries including those in the central nervous system of patients with nonketotic hyperglycinemia are discussed.
The formation spectra of model KbarN and KbarNN systems formed by (K−,n) reactions are investigated in order to obtain a theoretical basis for a proper interpretation of experimental data concerning kaonic nuclear quasi-bound states. It has been clarified that the experimentally observable kaonic nuclear state K−pp should be regarded as the decaying state introduced by Kapur-Peierls, which is different from the pole state solution of the Faddeev equation.