The concept of strangeness emerged from the low energy phenomenology before the entry of quarks in particle physics. The connection between strangeness and isospin is rather accidental and loose and we recognize later that the definition of strangeness is model-dependent. Indeed, in Gell-Mann’s triplet quark model we realize that there is a simple alternative representation of strangeness. When the concept of generations is incorporated into the quark model we find that only the second alternative version of strangeness remains meaningful, whereas the original one does no longer keep its significance.
When “coastal engineering” was recognized as a new discipline in 1950, the significant wave concept was the basic tool in dealing with wave actions on beach and structures. Description of sea waves as the random process with spectral and statistical analysis was gradually introduced in various engineering problems in coastal engineering through the 1970s and 1980s. Nowadays the random wave concept plays the central role in engineering manuals for maritime structure designs. The present paper overviews the historical development of random wave concept and its applications in coastal engineering.
Symplectin is a photoprotein from a luminous squid, Symplectoteuthis oualaniensis. It has a luminous substrate, dehydrocoelenterazine (DCZ), linked through a thioether bond with a cysteine residue. We have proven the binding site of luminous substrate in symplectin by using an artificial analogue of DCZ, ortho-fluoro-DCZ (F-DCZ). F-DCZ-symplectin emitting strong blue light was reconstituted from apo-symplectin and F-DCZ. Proteolytic digestion of the reconstituted F-DCZ-symplectin afforded peptides including C390GLK-F-DCZ (amide), which was detected with a house assembled nano-LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS. The chromo-peptide derived from the F-DCZ-symplectin after luminescence showed the lower molecular mass than that before the luminescence by 12 mass units, corresponding to the loss of one carbon atom upon emitting light. Thus, we have concluded that F-DCZ analogue binds to Cys390 in symplectin so as to emit light.
I investigated the potential contribution of Y-linked genes by analyzing 16 Y-consomic strains that had been established on a DH-strain background. The results provided evidence that only the Y chromosome from the C3H/HeJ strain was different from most other inbred strains. The CBA strain has the lightest testis and the DDD strain has the heaviest testis among mouse strains; however, Y-consomic analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in testis weight among DH, DH-Chr YDDD, and DH-Chr YCBA strains, suggesting that YDDD and YCBA themselves do not influence testis weight. QTL analysis in DDD × DH F2 mice identified significant testis weight QTLs on chromosomes 9, 14, and 17, and the DDD allele at all these loci was associated with an increase in testis weight. Contribution of Y chromosome itself to testis weight was thus rather modest, and therefore, major testis weight determinants are autosomal. However, it was uncertain whether there would be any effects by interactions between Y chromosomal and autosomal genes.