Structure and properties of silicon-silicon doubly bonded compounds (disilenes) are shown to be remarkably different from those of alkenes. X-Ray structural analysis of a series of acyclic tetrakis(trialkylsilyl)disilenes has shown that the geometry of these disilenes is quite flexible, and planar, twist or trans-bent depending on the bulkiness and shape of the trialkylsilyl substituents. Thermal and photochemical interconversion between a cyclotetrasilene and the corresponding bicyclo[1.1.0]tetrasilane occurs via either 1,2-silyl migration or a concerted electrocyclic reaction depending on the ring substituents without intermediacy of the corresponding tetrasila-1,3-diene. Theoretical and spectroscopic studies of a stable spiropentasiladiene have revealed a unique feature of the spiroconjugation in this system. Starting with a stable dialkylsilylene, a number of elaborated disilenes including trisilaallene and its germanium congeners are synthesized. Unlike carbon allenes, the trisilaallene has remarkably bent and fluxional geometry, suggesting the importance of the π-σ* orbital mixing. 14-Electron three-coordinate disilene-palladium complexes are found to have much stronger π-complex character than related 16-electron tetracoordinate complexes.
In 1957 Sakai and Kitagawa in Japan reported the clinical and biochemical findings in a patient with tyrosinemia, tyrosyluria, liver cirrhosis, and renal rickets. Subsequently, reports were published from various countries of other patients with hepatorenal tyrosinemia (HRT). 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase deficiency was originally proposed as the cause of HRT. However, in 1977 Lindblad et al. found that succinylacetone, which accumulates in the serum and urine from patients with HRT, inhibits delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase in vitro. They suggested that the primary enzyme deficiency in patients with HRT was fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, and this was soon confirmed. Thus, the elucidation of the pathogenesis of this disease has led to the possibility that, if a reliable newborn screening method could be developed, the prognosis of these patients would be improved. Early treatment would require a diet low in phenylalanine and tyrosine, administration of 2-(2-nitoro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), and liver transplantation.
Chara myosin is plant myosin responsible for cytoplasmic streaming and moves actin filaments at 60 µm/s, which is the fastest of all myosins examined. The neck of the myosin molecule has usually mechanical and regulatory roles. The neck of Chara myosin is supposed to bind six light chains, but, at present, we have no knowledge about them. We found Ca++-calmodulin activated Chara myosin motility and its actin-activated ATPase, and actually bound with the Chara myosin heavy chain, indicating calmodulin might be one of candidates for Chara myosin light chains. Antibody against essential light chain from Physarum myosin, and antibodies against Chara calmodulin and chicken myosin light chain from lens membranes reacted with 20 kDa and 18 kDa polypeptides of Chara myosin preparation, respectively. Correspondingly, column purified Chara myosin had light chains of 20 kDa, and 18 kDa with the molar ratio of 0.7 and 2.5 to the heavy chain, respectively.