Electromagnetic exploration is a geophysical method for examining the Earth’s interior through observations of natural or artificial electromagnetic field fluctuations. The method has been in practice for more than 70 years, and 40 years ago it was first applied to ocean areas. During the past few decades, there has been noticeable progress in the methods of instrumentation, data acquisition (observation), data processing and inversion. Due to this progress, applications of this method to oceanic regions have revealed electrical features of the oceanic upper mantle down to depths of several hundred kilometers for different geologic and tectonic environments such as areas around mid-oceanic ridges, areas around hot-spot volcanoes, subduction zones, and normal ocean areas between mid-oceanic ridges and subduction zones. All these results estimate the distribution of the electrical conductivity in the oceanic mantle, which is key for understanding the dynamics and evolution of the Earth together with different physical properties obtained through other geophysical methods such as seismological techniques.
To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker’s review article on “Laser Acceleration and its future” [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],1) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated.
Helical structures are chiral, which means that if we can synthesize a polymer having a stable one-handed helicity, the polymer is optically active. In 1979, we succeeded in the synthesis of a one-handed helical polymer from an optically inactive achiral monomer, triphenylmethyl methacrylate (TrMA). This is the first example of the asymmetric synthesis of an optically active one-handed helical polymer. The polymer (PTrMA) exhibited an unexpected high chiral recognition ability and afforded a practically useful chiral stationary phase (CSP) for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) by coating it on silica gel. In addition, we also succeeded in the development of very useful CSPs for HPLC using the phenylcarbamate derivatives of polysaccharides, cellulose and amylose. These CSPs can efficiently resolve a broad range of chiral compounds, and have been used all over the world for separating and analyzing chiral compounds.
Characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami have been revealed by collaborative tsunami surveys extensively performed under the coordination of the Joint Tsunami Survey Group. The complex behaviors of the mega-tsunami were characterized by the unprecedented scale and the low occurrence frequency. The limitation and the performance of tsunami countermeasures were described on the basis of tsunami surveys, laboratory experiments and numerical analyses. These findings contributed to the introduction of two-level tsunami hazards to establish a new strategy for tsunami disaster mitigation, combining structure-based flood protection designed by the Level-1 tsunami and non-structure-based damage reduction planned by the Level-2 tsunami.