Prior to the 1970s, pediatric coronary artery bypass surgery (PCABS) was seldomly performed due to the lack of compelling surgical indications. The advent of coronary sequelae secondary to Kawasaki disease (KD) and the occurrence of coronary artery complications due to newly developed procedures, such as the arterial switch operation and early repair for intrinsic congenital coronary malformations, necessitated the development of PCABS. Because children grow rapidly and their life expectancy is very long, with increasing exercise capability requirements, the strategy for PCABS should differ from that for bypass surgery in adults. PCABS utilizing unilateral and bilateral internal thoracic arteries (ITA) has become the most reliable surgical method for children because of the distinct structure of ITAs being resistant to KD, growth potential according to the child’s somatic growth and long-term patency without wall degeneration. This operation utilizing ITA grafts is now being performed worldwide and is referred to as the “Kitamura operation” for KD coronary sequelae. Notably, the use of vein grafts should be avoided in children. Likewise, this operation can now be successfully performed in infants using a surgical microscope, for congenital coronary disorders. Currently, PCABS with ITAs has been established as a new arena in cardiac surgery, following our initial attempts.
Immediately after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, a team of 40–50 researchers at the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Tokyo began to analyze the behavior of radioactive materials in the fallout regions. The fallout has remained in situ and become strongly adsorbed within the soil over time. 137Cs was found to bind strongly to the fine clay, weathered biotite, and organic matter in the soil; therefore, it has not mobilized from mountainous regions, even after heavy rainfall. In farmland, the quantity of 137Cs in the soil absorbed by crop plants was small. The downward migration of 137Cs in soil is now estimated at 1–2 mm/year. The intake of 137Cs by trees occurred through the bark and not from the roots. This report summarizes the findings of research across a wide variety of agricultural specialties.
The antibody response to RNA-related antigens such as Sm/RNP requires the endosomal RNA sensor TLR7, and this process is crucial in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus at least in animal models. The inhibitory B cell receptor CD72 is unique because it recognizes Sm/RNP and specifically inhibits the activation of Sm/RNP-reactive B cells by activating SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1). In the normal immune system, Sm/RNP-reactive B cells are tolerized by a unique mechanism that probably involves SHP-1. These self-reactive B cells appear in the peripheral lymphoid organs, differentiate into marginal zone B cells, and then undergo apoptosis without further maturation into plasma cells. Thus, CD72 is involved in the suppression of TLR7-mediated response to RNA in complexes with nuclear proteins that are resistant to nucleases, whereas free RNAs are degraded by nucleases before they encounter the endosomal RNA sensor.
Vertical profiles of potential temperature, salinity, and some chemical components were obtained at a trench station (29°05′N, 142°51′E; depth = 9768 m) in the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) Trench in 1984 and 1994 to characterize the hadal waters below ∼6000 m depth. We compared portions of both the 1984 and 1994 profiles with nearby data obtained between 1976 and 2013. Results demonstrated that the hadal waters had slightly higher potential temperature and nitrate and lower dissolved oxygen than waters at sill depths (∼6000 m) outside the trench, probably due to the effective accumulation of geothermal heat and active biological processes inside the trench. The silicate, iron, and manganese profiles in 1984 showed slight but significant increases below ∼6000 m depth, suggesting that these components may have been intermittently supplied from the trench bottom. Significant amounts of 222Rn in excess over 226Ra were detected in the hadal waters up to 2675 m from the bottom, reflecting laterally supplied 222Rn from the trench walls.