The 26S proteasome is a large protease complex that selectively degrades ubiquitinated proteins. It comprises 33 distinct subunits, each of which differ in function and structure, and which cannot be substituted by the other subunits. Owing to its complicated structure, the biogenesis of the 26S proteasome is elaborately regulated at the transcription, translation, and molecular assembly levels. Recent studies revealed that Nrf1 (NFE2L1) is a transcription factor that upregulates the expression of all the proteasome subunit genes in a concerted manner, especially during proteasome impairment in mammalian cells. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the transcriptional regulation of the proteasome and recent findings concerning the regulation of Nrf1 transcription activity.