Immunoprecipitation with autoantibodies to the insulin receptor derived from patients with extreme insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans revealed that the receptor is comprised of two subunits of 135 kDa (α subunit) and 95 kDa (β subunit) and that insulin induces the rapid phosphorylation of the β subunit in intact cells. Incubation of a highly purified insulin receptor preparation with [γ-32P]ATP also resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of the β subunit in an insulin-dependent manner, suggesting that the receptor itself is a tyrosine-specific protein kinase. Furthermore, a Japanese boy with insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans was found to be heterozygous for a mutation of the insulin receptor gene that resulted in the replacement of glycine-996 with valine in the ATP binding site of the receptor. Expression of the mutant receptor in cultured cells revealed it to be deficient in tyrosine kinase activity and mediation of insulin action, suggesting that the tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor is essential for insulin action in vivo.
The need to measure the concentration of selected ions and small organic molecules in both in vivo and in vitro processes is continuously increasing beyond the borders of various research fields. This need has been fulfilled using “host–guest chemistry”, or in general, by the use of “molecular recognition”. The basic idea in these research fields was derived from the 1 : 1 host–guest interaction based on the “key-and-lock” concept. However, we have experienced that only with this classical concept, more precise, higher-order recognition faces serious difficulty. In this review article, I wish to explain that the introduction of two new concepts, i.e., the dynamic action of molecular systems and the amplification effect of molecular assemblies, overcame the limitation of the “key-and-lock” concept. In fact, we have found that even “complete” chirality segregation can be achieved under optimal conditions.
In advanced cancer patients, malignant cells invade and disseminate within normal cells and develop resistance to therapy with additional genetic mutations, which makes radical cure very difficult. Precision medicine against advanced cancer is hampered by the lack of systems aimed at multiple target molecules within multiple loci. Here, we report the development of a versatile diagnostic and therapeutic system for advanced cancer, named the Cupid and Psyche system. Based on the strong non-covalent interaction of streptavidin and biotin, a low immunogenic mutated streptavidin, Cupid, and a modified artificial biotin, Psyche, have been designed. Cupid can be fused with various single-chain variable fragment antibodies and forms tetramer to recognize cancer cells precisely. Psyche can be conjugated to a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic agents against malignant cells. The Cupid and Psyche system can be used in pre-targeting therapy as well as photo-immunotherapy effectively in animal models supporting the concept of a system for precision medicine for multiple targets within multiple loci.
Cutibacterium acnes is a major commensal human skin bacteria. It is a producer of propionic acids that maintain skin acidic pH to inhibit the growth of pathogens. On the other hand, it is also associated with diseases such as acne vulgaris and sarcoidosis. C. acnes strains have been classified into six phylotypes using DNA-based approaches. Because several characteristic features of C. acnes vary according to the phylotype, the development of a practical method to identify these phylotypes is needed. For rapid identification of phylotypes for C. acnes strains, a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) fingerprinting technique has been applied; however, some phylotypes have not been discriminated. We developed a high-throughput protein purification method to detect biomarker proteins by ultrafiltration. MALDI-MS proteotyping using profiling of identified biomarker peaks was applied for the classification of 24 strains of C. acnes, and these were successfully classified into the correct phylotypes. This is a promising method that allows the discrimination of C. acnes phylotypes independent of a DNA-based approach.