Since the new era of infrared astronomy was opened by the Two Micron Sky Survey by Neugebauer et al. in the early 1960s, about a half century has passed. During this time, observations have expanded rapidly and widely, to almost every field of astronomy, to reveal new perspectives on the universe. As a result, infrared astronomy has become one of the major branches of astronomy, along with optical, radio, X-ray as well as high-energy particle astronomy. In Japan, we started our infrared astronomical activities at a rather early time, under relatively poor technical and environmental conditions, and using somewhat unconventional methods to overcome these difficulties. Here, a brief survey is presented of developments concerning infrared astronomy during the past half century, while mainly recollecting our footprints in the stream of world activities.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is a well-accepted means for analyzing glycans. Before glycan analysis by MS, several chemical derivatizations are generally carried out. These are classified into three categories; (1) labeling of the reducing end of glycans, (2) permethylation, and (3) sialic acid derivatization. Because sialic acid residues are unstable, they are easily lost during pretreatment and during or after ionization in a mass spectrometer. Sialic acid derivatization can prevent the loss of this residue. Recently, new types of sialic acid derivatization techniques have been developed, which allow straight-forward sialic acid linkage analysis (α2,3-/α2,6-linkages) as well as residue stabilization. This review summarizes the developments in sialic acid derivatization techniques, especially the varied methods of sialic acid linkage-specific derivatization.
Translation is the process of turning observations in the laboratory, clinic, and community into interventions that improve the health of individuals and the public, ranging from diagnostics and therapeutics to medical procedures and behavioral changes. Translational research is defined as the effort to traverse a particular step of the translation process for a particular target or disease. Translational science is a newly emerging science, distinct from basic and clinical sciences in biology and medicine, and is a field of investigation focused on understanding the scientific and operational principles underlying each step of the translational process. Advances in translational science will increase the efficacy and safety of translational research in all diagnostic and therapeutic areas. This report examines translational research on novel hormones, the natriuretic peptide family and leptin, which have achieved clinical applications or for which studies are still ongoing, and also emphasizes the lessons that translational science has learned from more than 30 years’ experience in translational research.
A bracket complex is a type of bearing system located on the top of a column and transmits the vertical load of the roof to the column. Bracket complexes are often used in Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines constructed using traditional timber structure. The bracket complex, being a combination of timber blocks and beam like elements, is said to have a positive effect on the seismic performance of traditional timber structures. However, this hypothesis has not been theoretically or quantitatively proven. The aim of the present paper is to clarify the dynamic performance of the bracket complex. The investigations of the present study were performed through experiments and analysis. Shaking table tests were conducted on four different types of bracket complexes. The stiffness, natural frequency, and load-displacement relationships were determined. The results were compared with those obtained by static lateral loading tests on the same specimen by the authors in previous studies. Earthquake response analyses were carried out by applying a structural model proposed by the authors based on the results of static lateral loading tests. The results of the analysis and shaking table tests are compared, and the validity of the proposed structural model is discussed.