In order to harness the functionality of metals, nature has evolved over billions of years to utilize metalloproteins as key components in numerous cellular processes. Despite this, transition metals such as ruthenium, palladium, iridium, and gold are largely absent from naturally occurring metalloproteins, likely due to their scarcity as precious metals. To mimic the evolutionary process of nature, the field of artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) was born as a way to benefit from the unique chemoselectivity and orthogonality of transition metals in a biological setting. In its current state, numerous examples have successfully incorporated transition metals into a variety of protein scaffolds. Using these ArMs, many examples of new-to-nature reactions have been carried out, some of which have shown substantial biocompatibility. Given the rapid rate at which this field is growing, this review aims to highlight some important studies that have begun to take the next step within this field; namely the development of ArM-centered drug therapies or biotechnological tools.
Memory retrieval is not a passive process. When a memory is retrieved, the retrieved memory is destabilized, similar to short-term memory just after learning, and requires memory reconsolidation to re-stabilize the memory. Recent studies characterizing destabilization and reconsolidation showed that a retrieved memory is not always destabilized and that there are boundary conditions that determine the induction of destabilization and reconsolidation according to certain parameters, such as the duration of retrieval and the memory strength and age. Moreover, the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory is not independent of memory extinction; rather, these memory processes interact with each other. There is an increasing number of findings suggesting that destabilization following retrieval facilitates the modification, weakening, or strengthening of the original memory, and the resultant updated memory is stabilized through reconsolidation. Reconsolidation could be targeted therapeutically to improve emotional disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and phobia. Thus, this review summarizes recent findings to understand the mechanisms and function of reconsolidation.
During the past decade, substantial progress has been made in the field of the genetics of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). These comprise a group of chronic myeloid neoplasms with abnormal cell morphology and progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), where revolutionary sequencing technologies have played a major role. Through extensive sequencing of a large number of MDS genomes, a comprehensive registry of driver mutations involved in the pathogenesis of MDS has been revealed, along with their impacts on clinical phenotype and prognosis. The most frequently affected molecules are involved in DNA methylations, chromatin modification, RNA splicing, transcription, signal transduction, cohesin regulation, and DNA repair. These mutations show strong positive and negative correlations with each other, suggesting the presence of functional interactions between mutations, which dictate disease progression. Because these mutations are associated with disease phenotype, drug response, and clinical outcomes, it is essential to be familiar with MDS genetics not only for better understanding of MDS pathogenesis but also for management of patients.
Black carbon (BC) particles cause adverse health effects and contribute to the heating of the atmosphere by absorbing visible solar radiation. Efforts have been made to reduce BC emissions, especially in urban areas; however, long-term measurements of BC mass concentration (MBC) are very limited in Japan. We report MBC measurements conducted in Tokyo from 2003 to 2017, showing that MBC decreased by a factor of 3 from 2003 to 2010 and was stable from 2010 to 2017. Fine particulate concentrations (PM2.5) decreased by a much smaller factor during 2003–2010. The diurnal variations of BC size distributions suggest that the BC in Tokyo originates mainly from local sources, even after 2010. Our three-dimensional model calculations show that BC from the Asian continent contributes a small portion (about 20%) of the annual average MBC in the Kanto region of Japan, which includes Tokyo. This indicates that continued reduction of BC emissions inside Japan should be effective in further decreasing MBC.