Mammalian neurons are highly compartmentalized yet very large cells. To provide each compartment with its distinct properties, metabolic homeostasis and molecular composition need to be precisely coordinated in a compartment-specific manner. Despite the importance of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a platform for various biochemical reactions, such as protein synthesis, protein trafficking, and intracellular calcium control, the contribution of the ER to neuronal compartment-specific functions and plasticity remains elusive. Recent advances in the development of live imaging and serial scanning electron microscopy (sSEM) analysis have revealed that the neuronal ER is a highly dynamic organelle with compartment-specific structures. sSEM studies also revealed that the ER forms contacts with other membranes, such as the mitochondria and plasma membrane, although little is known about the functions of these ER-membrane contacts. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and physiological roles of the ER structure and ER-mitochondria contacts in synaptic transmission and plasticity, thereby highlighting a potential link between organelle ultrastructure and neuronal functions.