Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B
Online ISSN : 1349-2896
Print ISSN : 0386-2208
ISSN-L : 0386-2208
Volume 97, Issue 1
Displaying 1-2 of 2 articles from this issue
  • Tomoyuki MIYAZAKI, Hiroki ABE, Hiroyuki UCHIDA, Takuya TAKAHASHI
    2021 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 1-21
    Published: January 08, 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: January 08, 2021

    Psychiatric and neurological disorders severely hamper patient’s quality of life. Despite their high unmet needs, the development of diagnostics and therapeutics has only made slow progress. This is due to limited evidence on the biological basis of these disorders in humans. Synapses are essential structural units of neurotransmission, and neuropsychiatric disorders are considered as “synapse diseases”. Thus, a translational approach with synaptic physiology is crucial to tackle these disorders. Among a variety of synapses, excitatory glutamatergic synapses play central roles in neuronal functions. The glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) is a principal component of glutamatergic neurotransmission; therefore, it is considered to be a promising translational target. Here, we review the limitations of current diagnostics and therapeutics of neuropsychiatric disorders and advocate the urgent need for the promotion of translational medicine based on the synaptic physiology of AMPAR. Furthermore, we introduce our recent translational approach to these disorders by targeting at AMPARs.

Original Article
  • Hirotaka SUGAWARA
    2021 Volume 97 Issue 1 Pages 22-49
    Published: January 08, 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: January 08, 2021

    Search and find methods*) such as cluster tracing1)6) or large-scale PCR testing**) of those who exhibit no symptoms or only mild symptoms of COVID-19 is shown by data analysis to be a powerful means to suppress the spread of COVID-19 instead of, or in addition to, lockdown of the entire population. Here we investigate this issue by analyzing the data from some cities and countries and we establish that search and find method is as powerful as lockdown of a city or a country. Moreover, in contrast to lockdown, it neither causes inconvenience to citizens nor does it disrupt the economy. Generally speaking, it is advisable that both social distancing and increased test numbers be employed to suppress spread of the virus. The product of the total test number with the rate of positive cases is the crucial index.